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When done correctly anyone in the world with internet access can locate those works that match their search criteria, including the titles in your collection. Because tribal college libraries commonly collect works that chronicle and preserve tribal culture, customs, language and history they tend to include material that is unique. Instead, you are often required to make one from scratch.
Even in those cases that a basic record already exists, they are frequently perfunctory. Because most libraries only have limited works dealing with any given tribe, cataloging everything under the proper subject heading for that tribe is adequate. However, when you have hundreds of books that deal with the Crow Indians in one way or another, you have to come up with a different way of classifying them.
To achieve this you can make extensive use local subject headings. Descriptive cataloging deals with describing the physical details of an item. It enables a user to retrieve the materials in the library by title, author, date, etc. It deals with the identification of these elements, the acceptable sources for this information and how to record it in order to create a proper cataloging entry.
After we cover the correct way to create each descriptive item part a we give you detailed information with lots of examples on how to convert this portion of your record into a MARC record part b — MARC conversion. The second section gives you ideas on creating a thorough summary. How to do it and why you should consider spending the time doing it? In the third segment we go over the creation of local indices — one for names and another for subjects.
Though these are labor intensive, they do offer access to your collection on a much more detailed level. Your users can locate a huge amount of information about such works online, giving them a better chance to find everything that deals with their chosen topic without actually skimming through the books. Works about Native Americans commonly include lots of names — either people who did something or who were sources of information.
Many of our patrons are interested in finding any mention of a certain name. It lists every Crow name, and the pages it can be found on, the work contains. We created a similar exhaustive local subject index. It lists every piece of information related to the Crows a book includes. Both the subject index and the name index are fully searchable. This manual will explain how to create such indices for your own library. The fourth section is devoted to subject analysis. On top of that we have created a long list of local subject headings — in the style of LC Library of Congress subject headings, but without the strict rules that govern the actual LC subject headings — that itemizes all the topics any given work deals with.
They have few enough titles in their collections about the Crow to make searching for them feasible without any further refinement of topics. As long as people find the E Since we try to avoid the E To account for the use of peyote mentioned in the title, another LC subject heading Indians of NA — Peyotism seemed appropriate. Because it also deals with the actual rituals observed in the church services we added a local subject heading of Crow Indians - Rites and ceremonies.
To cover the historical aspects another of Crow Indians — History was added, and finally Crow Indians - Government relations to clue in anyone looking for information on the legal battles Native Americans went through to attain the right to use peyote in their ceremonies. Thus the detailed records you can devise using this manual will open your collection to much greater use and help your patrons to learn more about their tribal heritage. Any additional information you need to catalog other materials you may encounter; CDs, articles, web sites, maps etc.
It contains numerous other terms related to cataloging as well. Because this manual is cursory at best and only covers those AACR2 rules most commonly encountered, it is recommended you purchase a current copy of the complete rules. A good place to get the latest version is the ALA store at www. It contains most of the facts that you might need in your work. Their head catalogers are usually a great source of information about how to deal with any oddities you may encounter and usually more than willing to help.
Another truly good resource is the cataloging department at the Library of Congress. You can e-mail them with your questions. It might take a while to get an answer, but they always come through in the end, and their advice is solid. Because today the main purpose of creating a descriptive record is to copy down the correct information, in the correct form, from the correct source, for the eventual MARC conversion we will follow the order set by the fields in the MARC format.
Thus we start with the author rather than title.
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When you think of locating a book, you probably rely on one of the following approaches: what is the title of it or who wrote it? Of course the rules would never simply call it an author. This actually makes sense since this entry includes such additional options as composers and film producers etc. Though they are treated in the same manner in your descriptive entry, they are recorded under different fields when transcribed into MARC. Following table shows you the correct places to look for the information in various types of material when you are creating your description.
As a first step, take a good look at the item to be cataloged, including the dust jacket if there is one, as well as any other materials accompanying the item. This is an attempt to discover all the routine data needed information about the publication, etc. This is most commonly done in the order of last name first, followed by first name, and middle one if listed.
The inverted name is followed by a period. If this information comes from some other source than the title page, you need to put square brackets around it. Note: when you do something out of the ordinary that requires the use of square brackets, you need to add a note under the field in MARC explaining the brackets. In this case your note may state: Author name from the cover. If found, use the exact form of heading as represented in that record. In these cases the title becomes the main entry. If the book has multiple authors three or less you will list them all in the statement of responsibility area.
If there are more than three authors only the first one is listed. The omission of the others is indicated by Note: List the other authors by name in the field as added entries. They are separated from each other by space-semicolon-space. If the relationship of the person in the statement of responsibility to the work is not clear, you can add an explanation [in square brackets]. Full descriptions of the first indicator and all subfield codes, as well as how to input your data for the X00, X10, X11, and X30 fields, are given in appendix C in the section about explanations for indicators including source codes for 2nd indicators and subfield codes with guidelines for application.
If the book deals with a certain state, for example Montana, you can add a MARC field as your first tag. There are no indicators. If you use this method, put in 1 as your first indicator. The second indicator is left blank. If there are dates associated with the name happens commonly with the authorized forms designated by LC add the subfield d and the dates, i. Example: 1 Medicine Crow, Joseph. Example: 1 McCleary, Timothy. If the publication is created by a corporation e. Example: 2 Little Big Horn College. Second indicator is left blank. You can add subfield c for the location of the meeting either place name or name of institution where meeting was held.
Subfield d is used for the date of the meeting. These are done in reverse order, see example. The next item in your record is the title. You should copy the exact wording, order, and spelling of the title. However, you may need to change the capitalization — in a proper record only the first word is capitalized. Also, in some cases you may need to use additional punctuation. If the title proper is missing from the chief source, you can supply one from anywhere else you can find one.
If no title is available, you need to make one up. This field has to be filled. To denote the irregularity of the source, the title is enclosed within square brackets in the record. Remember to note this in the field in MARC. It the title is listed in two languages, referred to as a parallel title by AACR, you need to record it in the form it is found with a space, equal sign, space between the two forms of the title.
Other title information, such as subtitle s follow the title proper with space — colon — space. Example: I am a rock : a Crow story. If the title proper needs an explanation, an explanatory term or phrase is added in brackets as other title information. Example: I am me being me : [an anthology of student poems from Crow Agency and Fort Smith elementary schools]. This subfield is recorded directly after the title, without spaces and put into square brackets. Once again OMNI leaves out the subfield marker a before the actual title. Type in the title as it appears on the title page.
It is not followed by a period, but a space, forward slash and subfield c for the author. It goes right after the title without any spaces and is placed into square brackets. If the work is anything else than the first edition list it. Use subfield b separated by space, forward slash to add any additional information listed in the new edition. The details about place s , name s , and date s relating to publishing, releasing, and manufacturing the monograph are recorded in this area.
The name of the country, state, or province is added to the name when necessary to distinguish between places or if necessary for identification. If several places are listed for the publisher, transcribe the first one. If another is typographically prominent, transcribe it as well. A probable place is given in brackets with a question mark when the place of publication is uncertain. After the place you add the name of the publisher. It is separated from the place by a space-colon-space. If the name of the publisher is unknown, the abbreviation s. Finally you need to add the date of publication to this entry.
It follows a comma, space , after the publisher. The first indicator refers to the sequence of publishing statements. Meaning if there is more than one, which one did you transcribe. Most commonly first indicator is left blank. This means that either there is no information about the sequence of publishers or you transcribed the earliest available publisher. If the place is unknown you may use the abbreviation S. If the name is unknown, you may use s. This is the place in your description where you answer the question of how many of what does the work consist of.
The number is prescribed in Arabic numerals followed by p. There is a space between the numeral and the material designation. Use the word page, if the text is printed on both sides of the page. Leaves are printed only on one side. If the preface or introduction is numbered with Roman numerals, list both the last page in Roman numerals as well as the last page in the Arabic numbered sequence. Rather they record the work as follows: 1 v. If some or all of these illustrations are in color, you would record it in the manner of the following example.
If the item illustrations include maps, plans, portraits or samples, you list these items separately in alphabetical order. If the book contains separate plates of illustrations, you can record them in the following manner:. The purpose of prescribing the dimensions of the item is to make it easier for the patron to locate the item on the shelves. The size in the case of a book refers to its height in centimeters.
Measure the height of the binding or the height of the item if not bound to the nearest whole centimeter up. Example: xiv, p. Note: In most catalogs the various fields are not searchable. Fields X are meant for various bibliographic notes. Each note is entered as a separate 5XX field. Though the various fields do not strictly speaking belong to the descriptive part of the catalog record, most of the fields [X] contain notes describing aspects of the work that a patron might find useful.
Such as the language note where you can make a note about the fact that the work contains other language than English, for example Crow. Or the field where you can list the contents either all of it or just those parts that you deem valuable to your users. General notes are recorded in field General Note. Specialized notes are contained in fields Library of Congress prefers the cataloger to use a specific note field if there is one suitable when inputting specialized note information.
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Below are listed those note fields catalogers use most commonly. The field is used for all other note information that has no pre-designated place to go. There are no indicators or subfields. You can list here anything you think is noteworthy about the book. The field is a good tool to let your users see what the book is about. Use 0 if you are listing the entire contents and 2 if you only cover part of the contents. There is no second indicator and no sub-fields. Note: Since you are not required to list the entire contents, you can write down only those chapters that are relevant to your users.
In the example below, the book in question - Early fur trade on the Northern Plains — has accounts by various traders dealing with several tribes. Since our students would most likely be looking for information about the impressions the traders had about the Crow, I only listed the two chapters that dealt with that topic. Note: If the content is extremely lengthy, try to pick out those topics that you think would be of greatest interest to your patrons.
As mentioned earlier, you need to fill some additional fields and subfields for other items than books. For anything else than a book in the field, the medium or General Material Designation GMD follows the title proper in subfield h. It is enclosed in brackets. Terms which may be used as GMDs are listed in the table below. For materials for the visually impaired, add large print or tactile , when appropriate, to any term in list. Add braille , when appropriate, to any term other than braille or text. The main differences from book tagging for CDs and videos, besides the subfield h, are summarized below:.
Sometimes the title on the container is different from the title proper.
Battle of the Little Bighorn
The physical description tag changes to physically describe the audiovisual material, including playing time and the dimensions. Example: 1 videodisc min. Field system details note is the place for technical information about the item, such as the recording system. Field participant or performer note contains the names of the participants, players, narrators, presenters, or performers.
All the performer names and other names mentioned in the work in addition to author, should also be listed in the field added entry — personal name with subfield e for relator term what the person did. See the section on added entry fields for a source of official relator terms. This applies to items that are made up of two or more components, two or more of which belong to distinct material types e.
If an item has one predominant component, describe it in terms of that component and give details of the subsidiary component s as accompanying material following the physical description field. Example: 47 slides : col. Start with the page numbers the article covers, followed by any pertinent information about illustrations, then add the height of the magazine in cm. Add a local note into field repeating the information about the host item. This is the note field which shows in the basic search and helps the student realize that he is trying to find a magazine with the article in it.
Finally you list the host item information title, volume, and number in the field host item entry. Use subfield t for the title of the magazine, subfield g for listing the volume and the date. In describing a facsimile, photocopy, or other reproduction of printed texts, maps, manuscripts, printed music, and graphic items, give the data relating to the facsimile, etc. Add a reproduction note in the field. Subfields: a lists the type of reproduction i. Make sure to list the actual number of pages you have in your copied item. This may be different from the number of pages in the actual article, as you may have a title page that shows the title of the magazine etc.
Note: You do not fill out a or when the item is copied from somewhere. The distinguishing features of a map are the unique gmd and the scale. Follow the instructions below to record these correctly. Statement of scale: give the scale of a cartographic item as a representative fraction expressed as a ratio Precede the ratio by Scale. Give the scale even if it is already recorded as part of the title proper or other title information.
Use field to record the series such as 7. Second indicator is undefined. If you only need a token summary, you can just skim through the book to get a basic idea of what it is about. Then compose a concise summary to let your students know what they can expect from it. Example: This book covers many of the religious rituals and ceremonies of Crow Indians; including: sun dance, vision quest, and peyotism.
A third group, those books that are the most comprehensive sources of information about the tribe, combines both a long summary, a gazillion s and s, and as many s as applicable. Even if you are planning to include a comprehensive list of subjects in the local index field and local subject headings, you need to write a detailed enough summary to help a student pull it all together. An effective summary should help your users get a good grasp of what the book as a whole is about. If you do not intend to include local indices, you should be able to do a detailed summary by reading the preface, the introduction, as well as the conclusions from start to finish.
Adding a thorough perusal of the beginning and ending of each chapter while skimming the rest, is usually enough to let a user know all significant points of the work. The publicity blurbs in the back cover were chosen to help sell the book and more often than not consist of a few catchy phrases and very little substance. Even if you only write a short summary, read portions of the book yourself so you know what you are talking about.
Note: Take careful notes of what you read, paying particular attention to the subjects covered. Once you do enough of these, your local subject heading list becomes so familiar that you will automatically recognize each topic in the work that fits one of the headings. Until then it will help to keep a printed list of the headings with you when reading as a reference. Each time you encounter a different topic you can consult your list and check it off. Record all potential subjects for the time when you will be choosing your main subject heading as well as the additional local ones.
Note: Once you have created your notes, the best way to proceed is to type them up in Word so you can use spell check to remove any typos one can always hope , before you enter your record into the catalog. Then just copy and paste. They will all turn into question marks by the time you reopen the record. The only way around this is to retype those characters in once the record has been entered. In our collection, those items that receive the most thorough summaries are works that deal with only a few main topics, but cover them in great detail.
The book explains how to conduct such research, what to expect from the people you interview, and the proper etiquette for dealing with your subjects from the Crow cultural standpoint. Since the topic is rather concise, there are only a limited number of categories for the local subject index and for the local subject headings.
However, the topic is of considerable importance to any researcher interested in working with the Crow, thus the work deserves a detailed summary of its contents to facilitate the understanding of the needs and cultural sensitivity such an undertaking requires. Crows convey the moral, ethical, and behavioral expectations of their culture through narratives. From these stories, traditionally told during long winter nights, Crow children learn what is expected of them in life and how they might achieve their desires.
The first kind includes stories about events in the distant past; myths and legends. They are usually reserved, especially around strangers and the women should not talk with strangers. They allow a person to conclude his remarks before others speak and consider a silence part of acceptable communication. They find both prolonged eye contact and physical touching other than handshaking inappropriate, though children are afforded much attention. If you find only members of the opposite sex present upon your arrival you should reschedule and leave immediately.
It is improper for a woman of any age be alone with men, even her own adult son. The sexes often sit separately when eating and rarely converse during meals. Note: As you can see in the example above, each paragraph in the summary has to be entered as a separate field. It does make the final record in the catalog look a bit odd, but that is a better choice than turning the entire summary into one immensely long paragraph. We created these two fields to provide our students with online access points to all the Crow content of a given work. If you plan to include these fields in your catalog, combine this work with the creation of the summary as well as the local subject headings.
As you read along, write down any relevant sentences you come across. Your aim is to extract every concept that deals with the main subject you are interested in — in our case at LBHC the Crow Indians. You will have to read the book from cover to cover, noting down all the relevant names, topics, and page numbers as you go along. You can see ours for reference in Appendix F. Example: striking an enemy was a high ranking deed, p.
Thus the final entry in the catalog will read: Coups: striking an enemy was a high ranking deed, p. If some fact is listed with the name of an observer, we list the entire sequence as a rather than separating the name into and the observation into Except when the name is mentioned for the 1st time, it goes to as well. It also makes it easier to locate those portions of the text where someone made a personal comment or told a story. This helps the user place the names in proper context. We also include other than Crow names if they are historically important to the Crow some trappers who lived with them, religious people who worked on the reservation, government people who worked on the reservation etc.
For example the Crow had a chief commonly known as Rotten Belly. In other works he is referred to as Sore Belly. The last one being the correct form of the Crow version. Often one or more of the other names is also included. Note: Because the and fields are specifically created to serve your patrons, you can add any information into the record you feel could be handy.
There are no official rules to dictate either the order of words or the number of them. Try to be concise, but do include enough information to make the entry useful. Once you have compiled a list of all the names in the book run it through the alphabetizing gizmo in Word. This will help you eliminate any duplicate mentions of the same name and make your final list a lot easier for your patrons to navigate. Use this to list all the subjects the book mentions that might be of interest to the students.
For our library at Little Big Horn College these are mostly things that relate to Crows directly — such as any mentions of various rituals, battles, trading patterns etc. But this also includes things that are only mentioned once and in just this book, such as the picture of Yellowtail during his inauguration. You need to list them all and put in the page numbers — this is what makes the books in the special Crow collection so easy to search.
Even if you have a person listed under , but he appears later in the book as part of the account, doing or saying something relevant, list him in and explain what he was doing instead of just putting down that particular page number after his name in See the treatment of Cold Wind in the example below. His name was mentioned on pages 9, 18, and 19, so those are listed as s. On those pages listed in fields he was telling a story that covered the given page numbers. Thus we offer the user three choices: he can look up all references about Cold Wind in this book, he can locate the stories told by him, or he can just find those pages where his name is mentioned.
This resembles the task of coming up with subject headings, but is much more detailed and flexible. Because one of the major assimilation efforts of the whites was centered on the idea of turning the Indians into farmers, many of the works in our collection have numerous references to topics that can be listed under this heading. Since the number of categories for the field is unlimited, we divided the topic agriculture into several sub-topics, each forming its own category. Thus we have the following categories all dealing with some facet of Crow Indians - Agriculture:.
As you jot down your entries for each page, try to place them into their appropriate categories. This will make the alphabetizing a lot easier in the end. Just leave that one without a category and move onto your next topic. When you are all done, do the alphabetizing. Read through the list you have created and think about each entry to make sure it is in the category that suits it best. Most of the time I switch at least some of them around, realizing that the topic I had consigned under White-Crow relations is really better suited for Assimilation for example.
Most of them will probably fit under something you have already listed in your category list, if not you can always create a new category to suit your needs. If the topic is unlikely to ever appear again, you can just leave it in the list without a category. Note: When you are formulating your categories you might want to follow the guidelines LC has set for subject headings about singular vs. According to their general rule, you should use the plural form when establishing topical headings that designate entities capable of being enumerated.
Use the singular form when establishing topical headings that designate abstract concepts. Maps: map of districts, communities, and independent Pentecostal churches on the reservation, p. The multiple access points created by descriptive cataloging offer an easy way to locate all the items in a library based on physical facts about the work. However, this approach completely ignores the intellectual content of the work.
To include this information in your cataloging record, you need to list all appropriate subject headings. The purpose of subject cataloging is to let the user know what the library has on a given subject. The more comprehensive your local subject heading list is, the greater the probability that your students will be able to discover every item in your collection that even briefly mentions any given topic.
Many books about Native Americans include at least some historic background regardless of the main theme s. Carefully examining the work for all possible topics will guide your users to works they would never have looked at without your efforts of rooting out all relevant subthemes. Since the call number is derived from the main subject heading, it is important to give considerable thought to the overriding theme of the work. Library of Congress simply tells you to choose the heading that represents the predominant topic of the work as the first subject heading.
If this cannot be done by using a single heading, assign as the first and second headings those two that, taken together, express the predominant topic. Note: Try to define the main topic as accurately as possible. After all, practically anything that happened before today qualifies as history. By all means list history as one of your subtopics, but spend some time reading the book to see what particular aspect of history is its main focus.
Maybe it concentrates on battles fought with enemy tribes, in which case you can go with warfare as your then add intertribal warfare as one of the s. Sometimes things are simple and the main subject is obvious from one glance at the title. Such is the case with many biographies. Here the title pretty much says it all: Plenty-coups, chief of the Crows. Though the book covers numerous subtopics, its principal focus is the life of the well-known chief.
You can then go ahead and add any subtopics as local subject headings. Example: In ideal cases determining the main subject is that obvious, but in real life things are seldom ideal. If you are unlucky the title can actually lead you astray. Reading on you may surmise that cataloging the book under the LC subject term ethics is a plausible choice.
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That was obviously the assumption of the cataloger who submitted the record for this work to OCLC. The second subject heading - social change — is much closer to the content. From the Crow view point, however, the main theme of the book is the enduring qualities of their customs and how these changed over time to accommodate the very different reality of life on a reservation.
Thus the subject heading Crow Indians--Social life and customs seems by far the most informative to the reader. To add to the confusion, Dr. Lear approaches this turning point in the life of the tribe through the visions of chief Plenty Coups. How his visions, and the interpretation the tribal elders ascribed them, gave the Crows a clear notion of a way to accommodate the coming changes in order for the tribe to endure.
Looking at the book from that angle, one could almost justify in calling it a biography as well. Luckily you can get around the LC rule it really is more of a recommendation that you limit yourself to no more than 6 subject headings by consigning most of the minor topics to local subject headings s. My approach is to list one to three LC subject headings in the field, followed by every topic under the sun that I can find as a local subject heading.
Even those titles that seem to shed some light into the work are seldom sufficient to determine what it really is about. This is a huge Ph. And the cataloger chose the easy way out by dumping it under the aforementioned catch-all of history, probably because the author included the word in the title. Not likely to move your average student to go to the trouble of pulling the tome off the shelf to find out if it could be of any use. The first local topic listed is religion. Though you can use this subject heading to list a wide variety of topics, including according to LC creation, future life, katcinas, occultism, revivalism, rites and ceremonies, shamanism, etc.
LC has a separate heading for rites and ceremonies — which the cataloger did put down as her third choice. Since the main topic in the thesis is the Tobacco Ceremony, that subject heading should have been the first one on the list. I would have picked it as the main heading instead of the history one. Hoping to impress on the students that the work deserves a second look, I wrote an exhaustive summary. Nabokov includes a careful analysis of the reasons Crows have always placed such high regard in the vision quest, pages of scholarly perspectives on it, as well as his own interpretation on it.
As you can see the original cataloging record was sadly lacking in useful information. Not only did I write the summary, I created a thorough subject index, added two more main subject headings to reflect the content a bit more accurately then increased the number of local subject headings from 4 to 36! You can find the complete record in appendix D.
Fields X with the exception of field that is used for uncontrolled index terms contain subject headings or access terms that provide additional access to a bibliographic record through a heading or term that is constructed according to established subject cataloging or thesaurus-building principles and guidelines. Following is a list of the most commonly used subject entry fields [see appendix C for all 6XX fields]:.
The second indicator is described in the specific section for each field. This is where you list the name s of people who are central in the book; such as the person whose biography the book is etc. If you used LC authorized form it would be 0. Most commonly used subfields: obviously the first subfield is the name of the person.
This is where you list the name of a corporation such as your college name if it is the main subject of the work at hand. The subfields are the same as for the field. This is where you list the appropriate subject headings you get from LC. If you choose a subject heading from another source, you need to use a different first indicator. For a complete list of choices see p.
This is called the subject subdivision portion, and includes the following options:. Most commonly used is the x, which comprises almost the entire list of local subject headings for the Crow Indians. Note: There is no space before or after the x and the information that follows. Also, the subject heading ends with a period. Note: Pay attention to the subfield code designators.
Rarely the same letter can mean different things depending on the field it is used. Example: v subfield in the field refers to volume of the work, while in the field it refers to "form subdivision" which you can use to show that the work in question is poetry or a handbook or juvenile literature etc.
No 1st indicator. When we want to make it easier for the students to realize that the work deals with some specific areas of the Crow life, we use the list of local subject headings. These are headings that are strictly for our library and generally make the title easier to find.
We include as many of them as seems appropriate. A good example is the Sun Dance. Try to list all possible local subject headings. Commonly the book might have one main topic, but it may include bits of information on many different aspects of Crow life; such as kinship, dress, economic conditions etc. Even if those are mentioned only briefly, you should list them.
Added entries are made for persons, corporate bodies, and meetings having some form of responsibility for the creation of the work, including intellectual and publishing responsibilities. This is where you list the additional authors if there is more than 1 [and the names come from known sources]. Added entries are assigned according to various cataloging rules to give access to the bibliographic record from personal name headings which may not be more appropriately assigned as Subject Added Entry-Personal Name or Series Added Entry-Personal Name fields.
Linderman ; with a new, previously unpublished essay by the author ; introduction by Barney Old Coyote, Jr. Added entry in which the name is not controlled in an authority file or list. It is also used for names that have not been formulated according to cataloging rules. Names may be of any type e. Used when one of the other access fields e.
This is a field you may want to use for those names you do not want to list in the local name index [ fields]. This field can also be used for names that have not been formulated according to cataloging rules. First indicator refers to the type of the name. After you go through the process of assigning your book the most fitting subject heading, you need to translate it into the correct call number.
Most academic libraries use Library of Congress Classification LCC system, because it is regularly updated to reflect the constantly evolving needs of the scientific community. It was created to be used with LC subject headings which give the most comprehensive coverage to academic topics. The LC classification system is an alphanumeric system for creation of call numbers.
A call number is a subject formula that groups materials by subject categories or classes. Each class is identified by a letter. Classes are broken down into narrower subclasses by adding more letters. The subclasses, in turn, are defined more precisely by numbers. In the case of Indians this class is not restricted to history, however. This is where almost all works that deal with any aspects of North American Indians goes. You can think of a call number as the address of an item within the library; it tells you where the book is located on the shelf.
Because the call number is derived from the main subject heading, all works that deal with the same topic end up alongside each other on the shelves. The first section of the call number represents the subject of the book. Such collections represent the location of an entire group of works within the library. The class number, which provides for the general classification of an item, needs to be augmented by a Cutter number in order to create a unique call number for the item. This whole process is commonly referred to as Cuttering.
Cutter tables are used to add short representations of names and words to call numbers to make them unique. To add a Cutter, go to the Cutter table in appendix B. Make sure to pick the right table! Enter the first letter of the last name then add the numbers from the tables next to it for the next letters, for example:. Corporate "authors", including conferences, should be treated like personal authors, for example:.
Occasionally there will be no number that fits a name exactly. In that case, use the preceding number. For example: Clinker Alex would be C55 not C When two different authors share the same number, add an extra digit to the Cutter number i. These are treated like any other book i. Names which have a space within, such as De Camp, should be treated as if there is no space.
Names and titles which are hyphenated, such as Co-workers, should be treated as if there is no hyphen. For example, Co-workers would be Cuttered for coworkers, and would be C When titles begin with years, numbers, or symbols, spell out the year, number, or symbol and choose the Cutter number as usual, for example:.
A work mark is used to distinguish different titles by the same author. This is a letter taken from the first key word in the title. Use the non-filing indicators in the MARC record to help decide where the title begins for Cuttering purposes, especially in the case of foreign titles. Similarly there may be, in the same classification, more than one book by the same author whose title begins with the same word e.
Use Z35h for the first book and Z35ho for the second. It may be necessary to use other key words from the title if the work mark would become too long. The use of zero should be avoided, because it is easily confused with the letter "O". That is why there are no zeros in the tables. A lower-case letter or letters is used for the work mark, rather than a capital letter. If the work mark is the letter "l", capitalize it to avoid confusion with the number "1".
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If the "L" is the second letter, there is no need to capitalize it e. AL, Bcl, etc. M4 is the subject Indians of North America — Medicine. There is no such subject heading in LC — the closest is Medicine. Medicine men, which is cataloged under the call number E The Cutter number should be: W55 when you use the expansion of the basic Cutter table, to represent letters i-l you are supposed to use number 5.
So the correct call number should be: E M4W55 Cuttering for words: After determining the filing position of the work, use the following table to create the Cutter:.
Cutters for Ilardo, Import, Ito, Ivy, Shillingburg, Singer, and Symposium have been developed when a range of letters in the table has been provided, e. Cutters for Scanlon, Qadduri, Qiao, Qvortrup, Chertok, and Clark have been developed when the second letter is not explicitly stated in the table, e. In most cases, Cutters must be adjusted to file an entry correctly and to allow room for later entries. When Cuttering for Roman or Arabic numerals, use the Cutters.
A12 -. However, if entries already in the shelflist have been assigned "documents numbers" e. A5 for the corporate heading United States. Cutter numerals to file directly behind those entries. Because of the infinite range of numbers, choose a Cutter toward the center of the available span when Cuttering for the first numeral in a class. The coauthor of In Search of Excellence offers practical insights on business, management, leadership, and success. This audio program covers listening to customers, noting symbols, circulating, motivating others, and striving for top-notch quality and service.
Once more the "unconventional" Peters stimulates corporate thought processes. Along with the best of his columns, Peters includes questions and rebuttals that come from readers and listeners, as well as his own candid responses. A "must" hear for every business person. Thriving on Chaos is the national best seller that offers prescriptions for an economic world turned upside down.
What is the secret of their success? And what can we - as individuals, companies and teams - learn from them? The world's greatest problem-solvers, forecasters, and decision-makers all rely on a set of frameworks and shortcuts that help them cut through complexity and separate good ideas from bad ones. They're called mental models, and you can find them in dense textbooks on psychology, physics, economics, and more. Or, you can just listen to Super Thinking , a fun, illustrated guide to every mental model you could possibly need.
In the new economy, hierarchical business structures are being consigned to the shredder and replaced with flexible, fast-responding, ad hoc groups of brainworkers. Tom Peters, author of the best-selling In Search of Excellence , is once again ahead of the curve, and now demonstrates that the key to success in business future is total engagement, dynamism, speed, and independence. Joy, Inc. Sheridan also shows how to run smarter meetings and build cultural training into your hiring process.
On our artist's journey, we move past resistance and past self-sabotage. We discover our true selves and our authentic calling, and we produce the works we were born to create. You are an artist too - whether you realize it or not, whether you like it or not - and you have an artist's journey. Will you live it out? Will you follow your muse and do the work you were born to do? The team behind How Google Works returns with management lessons from legendary coach and business executive Bill Campbell, whose mentoring of some of our most successful modern entrepreneurs has helped create well over a trillion dollars in market value.
Bill Campbell played an instrumental role in the growth of several prominent companies, such as Google, Apple, and Intuit, fostering deep relationships with Silicon Valley visionaries, including Steve Jobs, Larry Page, and Eric Schmidt. When anyone can start a business when everyone is running their career like a business , it begs a question. This is your one chance at life, you can have anything you want, what is worth doing?
Most people don't know why they're doing what they're doing. They imitate others, go with the flow, and follow paths without making their own. They spend decades in pursuit of something that someone convinced them they should want, without realizing that it won't make them happy. Anything You Want is a manifesto about living life, appreciating enough, and doing what matters. Minimalism is the art of knowing how much is just enough. Digital minimalism applies this idea to our personal technology. It's the key to living a focused life in an increasingly noisy world.
In this timely and enlightening book, the best-selling author of Deep Work introduces a philosophy for technology use that has already improved countless lives. From Daniel H. Pink, the author of the groundbreaking best seller A Whole New Mind , comes his next big idea book: a paradigm-changing examination of what truly motivates us and how to harness that knowledge to find greater satisfaction in our lives and our work. Peter Senge's groundbreaking ideas on building organizations have made him a household name among corporate managers.
His theories help businesses to clarify their goals, to defy the odds, to more clearly understand threats, and to recognize new opportunities. He introduces managers to a new source of competitive advantage, and offers a marvelously empowering approach to work. More than ever, the effective management of technology is critical for business competitiveness. For decades, technology leaders have struggled to balance agility, reliability, and security.
The consequences of failure have never been greater - whether it's the healthcare. And yet, high performers using DevOps principles, such as Google, Amazon, and Netflix, are routinely and reliably deploying code into production hundreds, or even thousands, of times per day. Focusing on how the business climate has changed, this inspirational audiobook outlines how the new world of business works, explores radical ways of overcoming outdated company values, and embraces an aggressive strategy that empowers talent and brand-driven organizations where everyone has a voice.
His vision: Employees who dance from project to project, making "it" up as they go along. Enterprise that reduces the bureaucracy to almost nothing. Societies that educate their young to break the rules and invent vivid new futures. More than just a how-to book for the 21st century, Re-imagine! Tom Peters, far from the typical rah-rah business advice guru, is both grounded and passionate, practical and visionary. The segments on leadership, globalization, and personal service were solid on target. And he did a great job reading his book. I like Tom Peter's view on modern business.
However, I was a little surprised by how monotone his voice was for his own book. The printed edition has technicolor all over the place, but the audio version seems black-and-white. If it wasn't for Tom's message, I would have given it only two stars. Tom captures what most people leave out- passion, vision, and execution.
In today's times the typical business has changed. Things are constantly changing. That is why I really enjoyed reading this book, and you should read it too. I think the research is definitely a bit off and a lot of the substance is reprocessed from other popular books and thought leaders and presented in an opinionated and at times arrogant demeanor. Also bothersome is the ambiguous references to personal meetings and sources i. I point this out to support comments in other negative reviews about less than accurate research and borderline arrogance.
Yes you will find that in this book. I read the negative reviews before I bought the book and can honestly say it is worth it! Folks this is an opinionated lecture from one of the country? Arrogant by his own admission, he pokes and prods the entrenched corporate mentality that is instilled in many of us, daring us to reinvent, redefine, recreate, rejuvenate and in short reimagine.
You will not find any blueprints or flowcharts to follow his prescriptions but you will find excellent examples of where the leadership mentality should be from the leadership mindset, mind you and a few best practices. He is right on the money on his observations on the future of middle management, the state of education and the potential of the businesswoman and baby boomer market. If you are a part of any government body, any rigidly structured company structure or culture or if you are a purveyor of a mundane product or service then you will not like this book. I think, if you are in marketing, part of a creative team, responsible for managing a group of people or if you are a student you will identify with his observations and see his predictions around the corner.