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Magnitude: how prevalent is CSA?
Contents:
  1. Issue Brief: Sexual Violence Against Women in Canada
  2. IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS:
  3. Special issue: Group treatment after child and adolescent sexual abuse: Introduction | SpringerLink

In a sample of pregnant US women, Benedict et al. Bonomi et al, in a Seattle-based health maintenance organization, found that women with history of psychical and sexual childhood abuse had significantly lower functional health and well-being scores as measured using the Item Short Form Survey Instrument 2.

In sum, our findings and those of others [ 72 , 73 , 76 ] indicate that childhood abuse has long lasting implications for general and mental health.

Issue Brief: Sexual Violence Against Women in Canada

Child abuse, a severe early life stressor, is thought to disrupt neurodevelopmental processes that contribute to physical, behavioral and mental health problems later in life. The influences of early life abuse are thought to be modulated, in part, via three neurobiological stress response systems: 1 the serotonin system; 2 the sympathetic nervous system; and 3 the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis [ 77 — 79 ].

Disruptions to any or all of these systems are known to promote a cascade of physiological, neurochemical, and hormonal changes, which can lead to alterations in brain structure and function and contribute to a myriad of enduring behavioral and cognitive problems[ 77 , 78 ]. For instance, childhood abuse has been linked to behavioral outcomes including internalizing behavioral problems such as limited stress tolerance, anxiety, affective instability, dissociative disturbances, depression and suicidality; as well as externalizing behavioral symptoms including poor impulse control, episodic aggression, substance abuse, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder [ 78 , 80 — 84 ].

Childhood abuse has also been associated with a number of cognitive problems including low academic performance and IQ, as well as language, memory, and attention deficits [ 85 ]. Taken together, evidence of neuropsychological impairments associated with childhood abuse are consistent with the thesis that early childhood stressors and trauma predispose individuals to subconscious beliefs of unworthiness which may lead to the avoidance of those who truly care and instead a tendency to gravitate towards chaotic relationships [ 86 , 87 ].

In addition findings from structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence of deficits in brain volume, gray and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum among victims of childhood abuse [ 78 ]. These data also add biological plausibility to our findings and those of others [ 2 , 16 , 19 ]. Our study reinforces numerous previous studies confirming high prevalence of childhood abuse [ 57 , 88 ] and high prevalence of lifetime IPV [ 23 , 24 ].

The high frequencies of exposure coupled with the complexity and interrelationships among the types of exposure support arguments for much more systematic, frequent, and intensive efforts to monitor the epidemiology of violence across the life course. Considering that victimization experiences accumulate across the life course, intervention should also target child victims and aim to prevent their future re-victimization. Policies and programs for preventing childhood abuse and its underlying causes are needed. There is a limited but promising body of evidence for preventative intervention programs for childhood abuse such as training in parenting and home visitations [ 22 , 89 — 91 ].

Careful cross-cultural adaptation of these programs and rigorous evaluation to monitor their impact is warranted.

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Our findings also suggest that childhood abuse and abuse by an intimate partner in adulthood are factors associated with maternal self-reported health status and antepartum depression. Asking pregnant women during early prenatal care visits about their experience with current and childhood violence may open a discussion about the potential risk of coping with these traumatic events through substance use during the pregnancy. Providing treatment for depression early in pregnancy may significantly improve pregnancy and early child developmental outcomes. Women abused as children are set on a trajectory for subsequent abuse and are a particularly vulnerable population.

Public health efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse, identify women with a history of childhood abuse and provide these women assistance with management of risky health behaviors, mental health issues and ongoing IPV. The NIH had no further role in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication.

Conceived and designed the experiments: MAW. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Objective We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence IPV.

IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS:

Methods In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1, women during early pregnancy. Results Any childhood abuse was associated with 2. Conclusion These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Introduction Childhood abuse has been shown to be associated with serious adverse health consequences across the life course [ 1 — 4 ]. Statistical Analyses Frequency distributions of maternal sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics were examined.

Results In this cohort, the vast majority of participants reported exposure to physical or sexual abuse as a child. Download: PPT.


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Figure 1. Table 1. Sociodemographics and reproductive characteristics of the study population. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Figure 2. Discussion Our study extends the literature by adding evidence of increased odds of adult physical and sexual abuse among pregnant Peruvian women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse.

Supporting Information. S1 Table. Supplemental Table for Fig. References 1. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med — JAMA — Child Abuse Negl — Health Psychol 32— J Allergy Clin Immunol — Child Abuse Negl 73— Am J Prev Med — Hornor G Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications. J Pediatr Health Care — Russell DE The incidence and prevalence of intrafamilial and extrafamilial sexual abuse of female children. Child Abuse Negl 7: — Schaaf KK, McCanne TR Relationship of childhood sexual, physical, and combined sexual and physical abuse to adult victimization and posttraumatic stress disorder.

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J Trauma Stress 8: — J Affect Disord — J Affect Disord 1—7. Headache — PLoS One 9: e Int J Public Health — JAMA Pediatr — Child Maltreat 79— Clin Psychol Rev — Arata CM From child victim to adult victim: a model for predicting sexual revictimization.

Special issue: Group treatment after child and adolescent sexual abuse: Introduction | SpringerLink

Child Maltreat 5: 28— J Psychiatr Res — J Pediatr Psychol — Rev Saude Publica — Arch Gen Psychiatry — Psychol Med 41— Psychol Med — J Midwifery Womens Health — J Perinat Med — J Adv Nurs — Am J Psychiatry — Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol — Journal of Social Issues — J Clin Psychiatry — Males at risk: The other side of sexual abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Boudewyn, A. Childhood sexual abuse as a precursor to depression and self-destructive behavior in adulthood. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, Briere, J. Prevalence and psychological sequelae of self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse in a general population sample of men and women.

Symptomology in men who were molested as children: A comparison study. Chandy, J. Gender-specific outcomes for sexually abused adolescents. Sexually abused male adolescents: How vulnerable are they? Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 6, Collings, S. The long-term effects of contact and noncontact forms of child sexual abuse in a sample of university men. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, Condy, S. Parameters of sexual contact of boys with women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16, Davis, J. The impact of child sexual abuse on adult interpersonal functioning: a review and synthesis of the empirical literature.

Aggression and Violent Behavior, 5, — De Jong, A. Epidemiologic factors in sexual abuse of boys. Dimock, P. Adult males sexually abused as children: Characteristics and implications for treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3 2 : Dodge, K. Mechanisms in the cycle of violence.


  • Research on Men Sexually Abused or Assaulted.
  • Forgotten Wings: A handbook for spiritual growth and personal transformation.
  • Magnitude: how prevalent is CSA??
  • Issue Brief: Sexual Violence Against Women in Canada- Status of Women Canada;
  • Science, , Dube, S. Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28, Etherington, K. Adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 8, Finkelhor, D.


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    • Sexual abuse in a national survey of adult men and women: Prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors. Child Abuse and Neglect, 14, Sexual abuse and its relationship to later sexual satisfaction, marital status, religion, and attitudes. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, Finkelhor, David. Freeman-Longo, R. The impact of sexual victimization on males. Friedrich, W. Brief diagnostic group treatment of sexually abused boys. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 3, Children from sexually abusive families: A behavioral comparison.

      Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, Behavior problems in young sexually abused boys. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, Holmes, W. Sexual abuse of boys: Definition, prevalence, correlates, sequelae, and management. Journal of the American Medical Association, , Neural correlates of reexperiencing, avoidance, and dissociation in PTSD: Symptom dimensions and emotion dysregulation in responses to script-driven trauma imagery.

      J Trauma Stress ; ; J Psychopathol Behav Assess ; Probing reward function in posttraumatic stress disorder: Expectancy and satisfaction with monetary gains and losses. J Psychiatry Res ; Retrieving, assessing, and classifying traumatic memories: A preliminary report on three case studies of a new standardized method. J Aggression, Maltreatment, Trauma ; Preliminary evidence for parasympathetic influence on basal heart rate in posttraumatic stress disorder. J Psychosom Res ; Incidence and patterns of polydrug use and craving for ecstasy in regular ecstasy users: An ecological momentary assessment study.

      Drug Alcohol Depend ; Hunter, Mic.

      New York: Lexington Books. Minneapolis, MN: Compcare Publishers. Hunter, Mic Ed. The Sexually Abused Male, Vol. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Am J Psychiat ; Recall of emotional states in posttraumatic stress disorder: An fMRI investigation. Biol Psychiatry ; Psychiatric Times, Vol.

      Lawson, Christine. Lisak, D. The psychological consequences of childhood abuse: Content analysis of interviews with male survivors. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7, Integrating a critique of gender in the treatment of male survivors of childhood abuse.

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      Psychotherapy, 32, The cycle of violence: The life histories of 43 death row inmates. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 8, Childhood abuse, PTSD, substance abuse and violence. Brown Eds. Factors in the cycle of violence: Gender rigidity and emotional constriction. Martin, G. Sexual abuse and suicidality: Gender differences in a large community sample of adolescents. Mezey, G. Male victims of sexual assault. UK: Oxford University Press. Miller, P. Associations between childhood abuse and personality disorder symptoms in college males.

      Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, Morana, P. Associations between types of maltreatment and substance use during adolescence. Myers, M. Men sexually assaulted as adults and sexually abused as boys. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18 3 : Perez, C.