The Gnostic Gospels. The Basic Tenets of Gnosticism. The Origins of Gnosticism. The Origins of Fundamentalism. The Basic Tenets of Fundamentalism. Revival of the Gnostic Heresy. The Differences between Gnosticism and Fundamentalism. The Case against Inerrancy. Its images were drawn by artist Pamela Colman Smith, to the instructions of Christian mystic and occultist Arthur Edward Waite and published in Waite deck.
The Game of Tarot. London: Duckworth, ISBN  H. A Sociology of Tarot. Canadian Journal of Socoilogy, 39 3 : The Symbolism of the Tarot: philosophy of occultism in pictures and numbers. Dover Publications. The Key of the Mysteries. Translated by Aleister Crowley. The Wisdom of the Fool. Jung and Tarot: An Archetypal Journey. San Francisco: Weiser Books. Also Inna Semetsky. International Journal of Children's Spirituality. A history of the occult tarot, ISBN See Michael Dummett.
This interested in viewing the images by do so by visiting this link. Divination Not to be confused with Divinization. For other uses, see Divination disambiguation. Divination can be seen as a systematic method with which to organize what appear to be disjointed, random facets Russian peasant girls using chickens for divination; 19th century of existence such that they provide insight into a problem lubok.
If a distinction is to be made between divination and fortune-telling, divination has a more formal or ritualistic element and often contains a more social charbirths, the tracking of natural phenomena, and other acter, usually in a religious context, as seen in traditional data. Chinese governmental planning relied on this African medicine. Fortune-telling, on the other hand, is a method of forecasting for long-range strategies.
It more everyday practice for personal purposes. Sortilege cleromancy. This consists of the casting of lots, or sortes, whether with sticks, stones, bones, beans, coins, or some other item. Modern playing cards and board games developed from this type of divination. This ranks a set of given possibilities. It can be qualitative such as shapes, proximities, etc. Omens and omen texts. An unconstrained form of divination, free from any particular medium, and actually a generalization of all types of divination.
The answer comes from whatever object the diviner happens to see or hear. Seers were not in direct contact with the gods; instead, they were interpreters of signs provided by the gods. Seers used many methods to explicate the will of the gods including extispicy, bird signs, etc. They were more numerous than the oracles and did not keep a limited schedule; thus, they were highly valued by all Greeks, not just those with the capacity to travel to Delphi or other such In addition to these four broad categories, there is distant sites.
Oracles could answer more has been practised in the cultures of India, Tibet, China, generalized questions, and seers often had to perform sevPersia, Sumeria, Ancient Israel and Babylonia. If the seer gave consistent answers, the advice was considered valid. At battle, generals would frequently ask seers at both the campground a process called the hiera and at the 2.
The hiera entailed the seer slaughtering a sheep and examining its liver for anThe Oracle of Amun at the Siwa Oasis was made famous swers regarding a more generic question; the sphagia inwhen Alexander the Great visited it after delivering Egypt volved killing a young female goat by slitting its throat and from Persian rule in BC. Neither force would 2. Deuteronomy or Leviticus can be interpreted as categorically forbidding divination. However, some would claim that divination is indeed practiced in the Bible, such as in Exodus 28, when the Urim and Thummim are mentioned.
Communicating with God through prayer is not the same as divination, though both are open, typically two-way conversations with God. Of course the degree to which seers were honest depends entirely on the individual seers. Despite the doubt surrounding individual seers, the craft as a whole was well regarded and trusted by the Greeks. Therefore, divination was arguably an accepted practice in the early church.
However, divination became viewed as a pagan practice by Christian emperors during ancient Rome. Oracles were the conduits for the gods on earth; their constitution of and public regulations of of. Kur-Saxony, capital punishment was used on those pre- past, present and future.
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These diviners are initiated and dicting the future. Divination was a central component of ancient Mesoamerican religious life. Many Aztec gods, including central creator gods, were described as diviners and were closely associated with sorcery. Tezcatlipoca is the patron of sorcerers and practitioners of magic. Every civilization that developed in Ancient Mexico, from the Olmecs to the Aztecs, practiced divination in daily life, both public and private.
Visions derived from hallucinogens were another important form of divination, and are still widely used among contemporary diviners of Mexico. Among the more common hallucinogenic plants used in divination are morning glory, jimson weed, and peyote. Generally occurring on Christmas and New Year's Eve, it is a practice in which one would fast and keep themselves away from light in a room until midnight to then complete a set of complex events to interpret symbols encountered throughout the journey to foresee the coming year. Main article: Saltigue Divination is one of the tenets of Serer religion.
However, only those who have been initiated as Saltigues the Serer high priests and priestesses can divine the future. African Divination Systems: Ways of Knowing. Indiana University Press. Witchcraft and Magic. In Michael Shermer. The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. Pseudoscience: A Critical Encyclopedia. The origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind. The Seer in Ancient Greece. Berkeley: University of California Press, Makers of Arab History. Princeton, New Jersey. Pg Magic and Superstition in Europe. Art and oracle: African art and rituals of divination.
The History of Magic. London: Henry G. Bohn, York Street, Covent Garden. Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico. A Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford University Press. Montgomery Watt. Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. Edinburgh, Scotland. Oxford Press, Pgs Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Swedish year walk: from folk tradition to computer game. Shetland Isles, UK, 24—30 March Cleromancy For the use of random selection as a way to make a fair form of selection, see Sortition.
Cleromancy is a form of sortition, casting of lots, in which an outcome is determined by means that normally would be considered random, such as the rolling of dice, but are sometimes believed to reveal the will of God, or other supernatural entities. In ancient Rome fortunes were told through the casting Other places in the Hebrew Bible relevant to divination: of lots or sortes. Times in the original Hebrew is pronounced aw-nan' in English. Casting of lots occurs relatively frequently in the Bible, and many biblical scholars think that the Urim and Thummim served this purpose.
In the Hebrew Bible, there are several cases where lots were cast as a means of determining God's mind: 1. According to Numbers , Moses allocated territory to the tribes of Israel according to each tribe's male population and by lot. In Joshua 7, a guilty party Achan is probably found by lot and executed. Joshua In this version, the runes were believed to determine the support or otherwise of gods, whether Christian or Norse, for a course of action or act. In Japan, omikuji is place Judas.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church this method of selection is still occasionally used. In Metropolitan Tikhon I Ching divination, which dates from early China, has was elected Patriarch of Moscow by the drawing of lots. German Pietist that was used by rulers in the Shang dynasty, and grew Christians in the 18th Century often followed the New over time into a rich literary wisdom tradition that was Testament precedent of drawing Lots to determine the closely tied to the philosophy of Yin and Yang.
I Ching will of God. This was often done by selecting a ran- practice is widespread throughout East Asia, and comdom Bible passage. The most extensive use of draw- monly involves the use of coins or traditionally sticks ing of Lots in the Pietist tradition may have been Count of Yarrow. Their method of casting lots is a simple one: they cut a branch from a fruit-bearing tree and divide it into small pieces which they mark with certain distinctive signs and scatter at random onto a white cloth.
Then, the priest of the community if the lots are consulted publicly, or the father. Retrieved E Dutton, Chapter 10 is on Kleromancy. Occult For other uses, see Occult disambiguation. Interpretation of occultism and its concepts can be found in the belief structures of philosophies and religions such as Chaos magic, Gnosticism, Hermeticism, Theosophy, Wicca, Thelema and modern paganism. It also describes a number of magical organizations or orders, the teachings and practices taught by them, and to a large body of current and historical literature and spiritual philosophy related to this subject.
Based on his research into the modern German occult revival — , Goodrick-Clarke puts forward a thesis on the driving force behind occultism. Occultism, on the other hand, is concerned with the nature of the "thing-initself". This is often accomplished through direct perceptual awareness, known as mysticism. Occult qualities are properties that have no known rational explanation; in the Middle Ages, for example, magnetism was considered an occult quality. This attitude is common within Wicca and many other modern pagan religions. Some other religious denominations disapprove of occultism in most or all forms.
English synonyms explained, in alphabetical order, copious illustrations and examples drawn from the best writers. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co.
Mysticism, Meridian, New York. Christian authorities have generally regarded occultism as heretical whenever they met this: from early Christian times, in the form of gnosticism, to late Renaissance. The Secret Doctrine. The American Heritage College Thesaurus. Page An outline of the principles of modern theosophy. Boston: New England Theosophical Corp. Books and Writers kirjasto. Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 10 February Westfall, Margaret J.
In Historical and Philosophical Perspectives of Science v. Roger H. Stuewer  Gibbons, B. Spirituality and the occult: from the Renaissance to the twentieth century. London: Routledge. The occult philosophy in the Elizabethan age. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Eliot, W. Yeats, and the Occult.
Encyclopedia of the Occult, the Esoteric and the Supernatural. Percival, Joined the Theosophical Society in After the death of William Quan Judge in , organized the Theosophical Society Independent and then wrote Thinking and Destiny which covers in plan terms the purpose of the universe and occult meanings. Ashgate, Farnham. The Kingdom of the Occult. The Pagan Temptation. Grand Rapids, Mich. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications. Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St.
Hints to Young Students of Occultism. Accessed ORG An on-line encyclopedia of the occult. For other uses, see Magia by various religious interest groups either to describe their disambiguation and Magic disambiguation. This he ascribes to nearly universal in the early development of human com- the need for to create a mindset that fosters belief in the munities.
They appear in various tribal peoples from ritual. Object, location, and performer may require plain personal or societal misfortune. Principle of contagion Another primary type of magical thinking includes the principle of contagion. Therefore, if one is to perform this action again, the same result can again be expected, a classic example being the rooster that heralds the rising of the sun: when a rooster crows, it is a response to the sun's rising but this interpretation can be inverted if the observer believes in the law of similarity which would suggest that it is a least possible the sunrise follows - or is caused by - the crowing of the rooster.
In the mind of a magical practitioner, it might seem to cause the rooster to crow early, late or not at all will result in an ability to control the timing of the sunrise or stop it altogether. Others argue that ritualistic actions are merely therapeutic, Tambiah citing the example of a native hitting the ground with a stick. While some may interpret this action as symbolic i. Ultimately, whether or not an action is symbolic depends upon the context of the situation as well as the ontology of the culture. Many symbolic actions are derived from mythology and unique associations, whereas other ritualistic actions are just simple expressions of emotion and are not intended to enact any type of change.
Whether spoken out loud or unspoken, words are frequently used to access or guide magical. Ogden and I. The use of Hebrew in Judaism being cited as an example. However the most commonly method of identifying, differentiating and establishing magical practitioners from common people is by initiation. By means of rites the 5. In practice the magician is tualist perspective, associated with Edward Burnett Tylor only as powerful as his peers believe him to be.
Main article: Witchcraft Witchcraft means the practice of, and belief in, magical skills and abilities that are able to be exercised individually, by designated social groups, or by persons with the necessary esoteric knowledge. The explanatory power of magic should not be underestimated, however. Furthermore, as both Brian Feltham and Scott E. Hendrix argue, magical beliefs need not represent a form of irrationality, nor should they be viewed as incompatible with modern views of the world.
From the intellectualist and functionalist perspectives, magic is often considered most analogous to science and technology. In practice, magic bears a strong resemblance to religion. Both use similar types of rites, materials, social roles and relationships to accomplish aims and engender belief. Magic and religion also share a collective character and totality of belief. The rules and powers of each are determined by the community's ideals and beliefs and so may slowly evolve.
Additionally neither supports partial belief. Belief in one aspect of the phenomena necessitates belief in the whole, and each incorporates structural loopholes to accommodate contradictions. The distinction Mauss draws between religion and magic is both of sentiment and practice.
He portrays magic as an element of pre-modern societies and in many respects an antithesis of religion. Magic is secretive and isolated, and rarely performed publicly in order to protect and to preserve occult knowledge. Religion is predictable and prescribed and is usually performed openly in order to impart knowledge to the community. It is private, secret, mysterious and approaches the limit of prohibited rite. Religion seeks to satisfy moral and metaphysical ends, while magic is a functional art which often seeks to accomplish tangible results.
In this respect magic resembles technology and science. The lines of demarcation between these ideas depend upon the perspective of a variety of anthropologists, but Tambiah has his own opinions regarding magic, science, and religion. Renaissance magic was based on cosmology, and its powers were said to be derived from the stars and the alignment of the planets. According to Tambiah, religion is based on an organized community, and it is supposed to encompass all aspects of life. In religion, man is obligated to an outside power and he is supposed to feel piety towards that power.
Also, He theorizes that feelings of reverence and awe rely on science is a developed discipline; a logical argument is observation of nature and a dependence on its regularity. Magic and science Tambiah states that magic is a strictly ritualistic action that implements forces and objects outside the realm of the gods and the supernatural.
According to Malinowski, magic and religion are also similar in that they often serve the same function in a society. The Catholic is more broadly available to the community. Furthermore, the possibility of anything happen- a number of ready-made rituals, acts, and beliefs, with ing outside of God's purpose was denied.
In all cultures the majority of human experience can blinds observers from seeing the similarities between the be explained by common sense. The purpose then systems as two applications of theoretical thought. Theory should imArthur C. Clarke pose order and reason on everyday life by attributing cause to a few select forces. Clarke formulated three 'laws' 2.
The Nondual Teachings Of Christ Vol 2
He supports his proposition by stating that magic is re4. He states that magic is simply the is deemed appropriate. All theory breaks up aspects of commonsense events, abstracts them and then reintegrates them into the common usage and understand5. Theory is usually created by analogy between unex- Further information: History of astrology and History of plained and familiar phenomena. For example, gods have the quality of spirituality by omission of many common aspects of human life.
Health and wholeness of being were sacred to Heka. There is no word for religion in the ancient Egyptian language as mundane and religious world views were not distinct; thus, Heka was not a secular practice but rather a religious observance. Every aspect of life, every word, plant, animal, and ritual was connected to the power and authority of the gods.
While both traditional beliefs and western science are based on theoretical thought, Horton argues that the dif- In ancient Egypt, magic consisted of four components; ferences between these knowledge systems in practice the primeval potency that empowered the creator-god was. In addition Pekhret, medicinal prescriptions, were given to patients to bring relief. This magic was used in temple rituals as well as informal situations by priests.
These rituals, along with medical practices, formed an integrated therapy for both physical and spiritual health. Magic was also used for protection against the angry deities, jealous ghosts, foreign demons and sorcerers who were thought to cause illness, accidents, poverty and infertility. At the city of Uruk, archeologists have excavated houses dating from the 5th and 4th centuries BCE in which cuneiform clay tablets have been unearthed containing magical incantations. A large number of magical papyri, in Greek, Coptic, and Demotic, have been recovered and translated.
Ars Magica or magic is a major component and supporting contribution to the belief and practice of spiritual, and in many cases, physical healing throughout the Middle Ages. Emanating from many modern interpretations lies a trail of misconceptions about magic, one of the largest revolving around wickedness or the existence of nefarious beings who practice it. These misinterpretations stem from numerous acts or rituals that have been performed throughout antiquity, and due to their exoticism from the commoner's perspective, the rituals invoked uneasiness and an even stronger sense of dismissal.
Despite the many negative connotations which surround the term magic, there exist many elements that are seen in a divine or holy light. One of the most famous healers of this time was Saint Hildegard of Bingen. Her healing abilities were so sought after that many individuals, healthy and ill alike, would travel great distances to be blessed by her. In a similar light, there also exist many folk scattered throughout the western medieval territories who claim to practice and carry this same gift.
This has been commonly observed in many religious texts, The Bible being only one of the many pieces of religious literature which contain a plethora of such concepts. Another topic discussed among historians is the various tools or. The idea that magic was devised, taught, and worked by demons would have seemed reasonable to anyone who read the Greek magical papyri or the Sefer-ha-Razim and found that healing magic appeared alongside rituals for killing people, gaining wealth, or personal advantage, and coercing women into sexual submission.
The notions about magic hold a very diverse presence across the medieval land and provide a sense of frequent discussion across, and between, the numerous varying sects of antiquity. Sects who have provided many thoughts and opinions about magic range from a variety of teachings or followings. The Renaissance, on the other hand, saw the rise of science, in such forms as the dethronement of the Ptolemaic theory of the universe, the distinction of astronomy from astrology, and of chemistry from alchemy. Both bourgeoisie and nobility in the 15th and 16th century showed great fascination with these arts, which exerted an exotic charm by their ascription to Arabic, Jewish, Gypsy, and Egyptian sources, and the popularity of white magic increased.
However, there was great uncertainty in distinguishing practices of superstition, occultism, and perfectly sound scholarly knowledge or pious ritual. The intellectual and spiritual tensions erupted in the Early Modern witch craze, further reinforced by the turmoil of the Protestant Reformation, especially in Germany, England, and Scotland. From what has been premised, we may readily conclude that there are two distinct species of magic; one whereof, being inherent in the occult properties of nature, is called natural magic; and the other, being obnoxious and contrary to nature, is termed infernal magic, because it is accomplished by infernal agency or compact with the devil Further information: 17th-century philosophy, natural magic, and Isaac Newton's occult studies Study of the occult arts remained intellectually re-.
A talisman from the Black Pullet, a late grimoire containing instructions on how a magician might cast rings and craft amulets for various magical applications, culminating in the Hen that Lays Golden Eggs. The 17th century saw the gradual rise of the "age of reason", while belief in witchcraft and sorcery, and consequently the irrational surge of Early Modern witch trials, receded, a process only completed at the end of the Baroque period circa There is The lily and the rose rejoice by each other's side; whilst In stones likewise, in minerals, Animated nature, in every clime, in.
Under the veil of natural magic, it hath pleased the Almighty to conceal many valuable and excellent gifts, which common people either think miraculous, or next to impossible. And yet in truth, natural magic is nothing more than the workmanship of nature, made manifest by art; for, in tillage, as nature produceth corn and herbs, so art, being nature's handmaid, prepareth and helpeth it forward Many reputable authors Seeing, therefore, that such virtues lie hid in the occult properties of nature, united with the sense or imagination of man Baron Carl Reichenbach's experiments with his Odic force appeared to be an attempt to bridge the gap between magic and science.
European colonialism put Westerners in contact with India and Egypt and re-introduced exotic beliefs. Hindu and Egyptian mythology frequently feature in 19th-century magical texts. In addition to healing, medicine served many other purposes, for example among the Cheyenne, one of Plains Indians that lived in the Great Plains of North America, medicine such as war paint, war shields, war shirts, and war bonnets, such as the famous war bonnet of Roman Nose, served to protect a warrior from wounding during battle.
This shift is by no means in nomenclature alone. While the shaman's task was to negotiate between the tribe and the spirit world, on behalf of the tribe, as directed by the collective will of the tribe, the priest's role was to transfer instructions from the deities to the city-state, on behalf of the deities, as directed by the will of those deities. The Atharva Veda is a veda that deals with mantras that can be used for both good and bad. Tantra is likewise employed for ritual magic by the tantrik. Many ascetics after long periods of penance and meditation are alleged to attain a state where they may utilize supernatural powers.
However, many say that they choose not to use them and instead focus on transcending beyond physical power into In , Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of Mbuti the realm of spirituality. Many siddhars are said to have pygmies, told the UN's Indigenous People's Forum that performed miracles that would ordinarily be impossible during the Congo Civil War, his people were hunted down to perform. In general, the 20th century saw a sharp rise in public interest in various forms of magical practice, and the foundation of a number of traditions and organizations, ranging from the distinctly religious to the philosophical.
Al- will. In Magick in Theory and Practice, intensive criticism from sources both within and without Chapter XIV, Crowley says: the Neopagan community, his works remain the most important founding stone of Wicca. What is a Magical Operation? Let us take a very of the hippies also spawned another period of renewed simple example of a Magical Act: that of a man interest in magic, divination, and other occult pracblowing his nose.
Following the trend of magic associated with counterculture, some feminists launched an independent revival of goddess worship. Despite that diversity of opinion, he concludes that the result upon the practitioner is generally perceived as a positive one. Israel Regardie argued that some magical practices rely upon widely accepted psychological principles and are intended to promote internal personal changes within the practitioner themselves. The pentagram, an ancient geometrical symbol known from many cultures is often associated with magic.
Other, similar resurgences took place at roughly the same time, centered in France and Germany. The western traditions acknowledging the. Common terms referring to such magical energy include mana, numen, chi or kundalini. Based on the fundamental all things, though it can be especially concentrated in concepts of monism and nonduality, this philosophy magical objects.
Magical energies are typically seen holds that Magic is little more than the application of one's own inherent unity with the universe. This cornature, seeking and preserving balance in all things. Many more hypotheses exist. In the contemporary current of chaos magic in intelligence. Many of those who purportthe magician and symbols or objects which are rep- edly cast spells attain a mental state called the "trance resentative of the element s.
The trance state is often detypically use the Classical elements of Earth, Air, scribed as an emptying of the mind, akin to that of meditation. Water, and Fire. See Mitzvot. The general theme of these commandments is a prohibition against polytheism since the practice of sorcery connotes the alleged invocation of spirits or other unseen forces that are not God. While pagan magic tries to circumvent the power of godheads through manipulation of the meta-divine, the God in Judaism is all-powerful and transcendent, he cannot be manipulated in the pagan sense by magic.
This is called 'practical kabbalah' and is a type of White Magic. To believers who think that they need to convince their subconscious mind to make the changes that they desire, all spirits and energies are projections In Christianity and symbols that make sense to the subconscious. A variant of this belief is that the subconscious is Further information: Renaissance magic, Grimoire, capable of contacting spirits, who in turn can work Christian views on magic, and Theurgy magic. However, it was never completely settled whether there may be permissible practices, e.
The distinction became particularly pointed and controversial during the Early Modern witch-hunts, with some authors such as Johannes Hartlieb denouncing all magical practice as blasphemous, while others portrayed natural magic as not sinful. Note also that Gnostic Christianity has a strong mystical current, but shies away from practical magic and focuses more on theurgy. In Islam. The then the consequences that followed: character of Faustus, likely based on a historical 16thcentury magician or charlatan, became the prototypical And when they got a messenger that is popular tale of a learned magician who succumbs to a supporting to what they have, some of them pact with the devil.
They contradict the tency; and woe! Meanings see:Q God alone. Such guishes between apparent sorcery and devilry. The second form, usually known as 'witchcraft', Commandment because they in themselves betray a lack is the magic that wide spreads amongst devils and devious of faith, and not because they may or may not result in characters. Recourse to so-called tradi, are mere protocols the evilly-devolved enforce amongst tional cures does not justify either the invocation their circles whilst claiming their Solomon's protocols.
Magic, as a common terminology, however, is used to describe appeal, and also to describe delusion; one can mean an ethereal form of attraction or beauty, or what is experienced through lies or provoked meta-causalities or contagions. Some went on to explain that it was like the actor maintaining obedience depending upon the benevolence or malevolence of his practice.
Apropos benevolent magicians, in contrast, obeyed and appeased Allah so that Allah exercised His will upon the spirits. He argues that in Egypt, sihr only applies to sorcery. Islam in practice seizes to categorize except what is apparently observed; maintaining a disposition that religiosity is a matter of heart, as rituals and. Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles. Magic, Science, Religion, and the Scope of Rationality. Brain, Trans. New York: Norton Library. Original work published Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN X. Paul, Minnesota: Llewellyn, p.
June The Magical Power of Words. New Series, Vol. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 21 November How to Do Things With Words. Oxford: Clarendon Press Association for Psychological Science.
Tsewa's Gift. Tuscaloosa, Alabama, The Meaning of Meaning. Discussed in Tambiah, S. Cambridge, UK. A General Theory of Magic. New York: Norton. Abridged Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Original Work Published  Glucklich, A. The End of Magic. Tedeschi, Trans. Pagan Survivals, Superstitions, Popular Cultures. Retrieved 15 May Magic, Science and Religion and Other Essays. Christians got to know the Divine Natural of the Lord in a sensuous way, tangible, touchable.
Even after the first generation passed on, the ensuing generations of Christians knew the Lord in this sensuous way because they believed that He was real, that He had indeed been here on this earth as God Incarnate. But this is relatively speaking, knowing the Lord like a neighbor whom we can see with our eyes every morning exiting from the apartment building, but whom we do not know because we do not know his beliefs and attitudes.
All humans consist of a rational mind within a body. In this world, we are a rational mind within a physical body, and in the afterlife, we are this same rational mind, but now in a spirit-body. The sensuous body is the outward casing for the spiritual rational mind. This Divine Rational is the origin and source of Divine Truth, the substance from which all is created. This Divine Rational is what has been revealed in the Writings. The Second Coming refers to the revelation of the Divine Rational. This revelation was completed and published on June 19, , a date marked by the Lord in the spiritual world, by gathering the Apostles that had followed Him in the world, placing a copy of the True Christian Religion in their hands, and instructing them to go out and preach the new revelations of His Second Coming.
This was witnessed by Swedenborg as part of his mission to be the architect and composer of the Writings. This new revelation was given for the entire human race, for all people regardless of religious background. Because it is a universal revelation of the Divine Rational, the form and content of the revelation had to be scientific and verifiable by rational analysis and criticism. This includes the revelation that the universe is created for a human purpose by means of truth within which is love. And it also includes the revelation of the existence of two worlds, one being a natural world where human beings are born and raised, the other a spiritual world, where human beings awaken a few hours after death and continue individual life eternally in either a celestial existence in heaven or an infernal existence in the hells.
I mention these things here as general topics that have been of interest to the human race since the beginning of literature. But the Writings deal with these spiritual, philosophical, and religious topics in a rational way that give a scientifically precise and dynamic account of them. This is what I found so attractive in the Writings the minute I started reading them in at age 43, having discovered them in our university library while I was searching for Bible Commentaries. Subsequently I also found out that the Writings of Swedenborg have had a distinguished but small following, that his books have been translated in a dozen languages, and that several communities have been created by people who call themselves the New Church religion that is based on the Writings.
When I started reading the first pages of the first volume of the volume collection called the Writings, I was able to see that this is not like any other work in the history of our race. I was trained as a scientist and earned a living as a psychology professor in a department that expects its faculty to teach the science and method of psychology.
I have done this for 40 years now, and continue to do so as I write this book, at age If the Writings had been like other books, I would have had to continue searching and longing for the scientific and rational understanding of reality and self. God has created the human race to evolve to ever higher powers of life and being. The perfecting of the human race is a gradual evolution in which our conscious cooperation with God is required to increase as we evolve to higher states of life and consciousness. The method by which the human race cooperates ever more consciously in its own evolution, is the method of truth and love.
God is a Divine Rational Being whose essence is love and truth in an infinite degree. Divine Rational is the same as Divine Human, because the human is defined by the rational. The spiritual is nothing but the human rational in its essence. God creates the universe not out of nothing, for this is irrational. God is infinite in quantity and complexity, and this infinite quantity is in God as one, that is, as one coherent whole.
Nothing can exist that is not created from this infinite Divine Rational Substance called love and truth united as one. Since the universe is created from truth and into the order of truth, reality is a rational reality. God is a rational entity and our idea of God is a rational idea. All laws of the universe are rational laws. The spiritual world and the natural world are both rational worlds, by necessity of creation. Heaven is a rational creation. The suns and earths in the universe are rational entities. The human race is a rational creation and event, with a rational goal, and a rational method of evolution.
The ultimate goal of this evolution is to reach perfection as a rational being. Truth belongs to love. Love is the creating, driving force, power, and goal. When love creates something, it does that by means of truth. Truth is the exteriorization of love. Love is the substance, while truth is the form of this substance.
Truth can do nothing by itself, but only from love. Since all things are created from love by its truth into truth, the human mind is the highest element of all creation. Only the human mind is created capable of conscious understanding of truth, which can also be called rational love. The human mind is to evolve into the ability to understand ever more interior truths or rational loves, of which the most interior, is God.
All things of creation are in God, yet God is separate from this creation. It would not be rational to think that God has created Himself! Neither that reality has created itself! God has created reality, which means that God is outside reality, able to create it and run it. The method by which the human race is to evolve to ever more interior understanding of infinite Divine Truth, is the method of Divine Revelations.
This has been the case since the first generation of the human race. Literature has preserved the long record of Divine Revelations to the earlier generations. Each Divine Revelation was given by God as a stepped up evolutionary leap for the human race. Each new revelation took hundreds of generations to fully digest and incorporate into the fabric of human understanding.
In this way there has been steady progress in the evolution of human consciousness, as reflected by a world that has left barbaric savagery behind and has developed for itself an advanced civilization based on rational principles of mutual cooperation and treatment.
These new revelations are for the first time fully rational and scientific. The human race had to evolve a modern scientific mind before these new rational scientific revelations could be given. At last, in the Age of Reason of the 18 th century in Christian Western Europe, the human mind was ready to receive, understand, and accept a full unqualified and total revelation of God and reality in rational concepts and terms that the modern mind could readily understand.
This was done through the mind of Emanuel Swedenborg, recognized as one of the great geniuses in the history of literature and science. At age 57 Swedenborg was at the height of his scientific and professional career. His achievements have been well documented in several fields, including metallurgy, chemistry, anatomy, psychology, theology, education, and legislation. He tells how the God of His childhood and country, in the image of Jesus Christ, appeared before him and held him affectionately in His bosom for a little while.
He writes that the Lord then told him that he was being prepared since early childhood for the mission of Revelator and that the time has now come, in , for him to begin his Divine mission. They were therefore going to be a full and total rational disclosure of reality and its workings. Prior Divine Revelations of the Word, such as the Old and New Testaments, were given in a language of authority and mystery, but the final portion of the Divine Word for the human race, are given in a language of rationality and science.
No mystery is left standing. A Divine Revelation is given for the purpose of raising the consciousness of the race. This is accomplished by means of the truths in the Revelation. It is necessary therefore that people be able to understand the revelation. To make this possible therefore, all Divine Revelations are given through the mind of an individual human being, a capable representative of the rest of the race.
The man whose mind was prepared for issuing this last of Divine Revelations had to be a product of the Age of Reason in Christian Western intellectual culture. It had to be a modern scientific revelation because the human race had evolved to this level of rational and spiritual consciousness. The modern mind was unwilling to believe in a God of mystery and authority. It needed a rational scientific account of God, reality, and our position in it.
Even a sensuous God was no longer enough. Without love for God, we cannot be regenerated and saved for life in heaven.
The Age of Reason in Europe had two well developed rational elements. One was scientific and the other was religious. Science and theology were both rational creations of the modern human intellect. The Christian religion was given as both a sensuous and rational revelation to the human race. The sensuous revelation was the unprecedented event of Incarnation--God born in history as a human being of flesh and blood. This event took the human race forward into rational consciousness.
Besides the sensuous revelation of the New Testament, a rational revelation is also made there, namely, that God is Human. This was the first time that the human race had proof that the universe was a rational universe created for a human purpose by a Human God. God was Human and Rational, thus, Love and Truth. And He created the universe out of Truth into truth, hence in a rational order. The presence of God with the human race was through rational consciousness, rational understanding, rational loves, not ecstatic emotions or animal sacrifices and ceremonies.
The First Coming was the Incarnation of God in a physical body. It was a momentous forward step in the evolution of human consciousness because the human race had never had this proof before, had never been able to face God in a physical and natural presence. Now God was part of our history, part of our science, part of our rational understanding of reality.
God could make an appearance in the sensuous human world by taking over the mind of a celestial individual and speaking through this person like a mouthpiece. The prophets and various individuals to whom God appeared in the Bible saw God through such an appearance, thus not God, but a human being possessed by the Spirit of God. This allows a far closer contact with God, hence a far higher level of consciousness and life for the human race.
The New Testament Revelations also revealed that there is going to be one more Divine Revelation necessary to complete the creation of the human race into its full perfection. This full perfection is the state in which we can cooperate consciously with God in our preparation for heavenly life in eternity. Full conscious cooperation cannot be done while there are mysteries left in religion, science, and reality.
The Last Divine Revelation, or the Last Testament of the Word, has been laid down in Latin through the mind of Swedenborg, and now we have it, I, you, and the rest of the endless generations to come. A copy of the Writings as the New Word is also to be found in every society of the numberless heavens in the spiritual world. Therefore in order to have Swedenborg write those sentences he had to first understand all of reality and God in relation to the human race.
He had to understand rationally so that he could compose those sentences from which others could extract the rational truths. The answer is surprisingly simple: Swedenborg had to be given access to a spiritual laboratory so that he may conduct his experimental and empirical observations by which he might discover the rational truths of reality and God in relation to human beings.
The people who inhabit the celestial regions in their mind are called angels and have many powers that Swedenborg did not have, being still a man on earth. These angels intervened of his behalf, protected him from harm, and arranged for conditions Swedenborg needed to make his observations and to write them down in a natural language Neo-Latin and Swedish.
He not only wrote down what happened but was also given the capacity to provide a scientific and theological context for his observations and reports. Thus, nothing is wanting in the Writings for fulfilling its role as the greatest intellectual boon the human race has ever received, or will ever receive again. His practiced genius was able to make detailed indexes of the Holy Book which he read in the original Hebrew and Greek.
To his amazement he discovered that within the literal meaning of the Old and New Testaments there lay hidden a spiritual meaning that was not apparent to the reader until each word and phrase was taken as a correspondence for some deeper spiritual meaning. For example, by collating many corresponding passages from both Testaments, Swedenborg showed how any rational and educated person could discover the spiritual message in each verse.
The content of these spiritual meanings hidden within the literal had to do with the rational exposition of reality and God in relation to the human race. This systematic work of discovery was most important and impressive, and will be a benefit to humankind for all the ages to come. And yet, this work would not have been sufficient to constitute the final, total, and thus last, Divine Revelation by which everything the human race can know and understand. There also had to be a science to it. Where was the science of it? Extracting a rational system from historical Divine works in the Bible is admirable, but it is not a scientific work.
The only way Swedenborg could produce a scientific report of the spiritual world was to be there when he describes it! This was granted to him by Divine intervention as the greatest miracle in human history. A few months after his momentous encounter with the Lord, Swedenborg began to have flashes of conscious presence in the spiritual world. He did not know what is the spiritual world. From his initial flashes it looked like a version of the natural world, with people walking about in cities and in the country side where there were forests, deserts, mountains, and lakes.
It took just a few months for him to get adjusted to a full time permanent conscious awake state in both worlds simultaneously. Never before in history has anyone ever claimed to be fully conscious in both worlds simultaneously and uninterruptedly for 27 years while carrying on their profession and normal duties and in society. This was especially a significant development because Swedenborg was an impeccable scientist of the modern Age of Reason in Christian Western Europe.
He was able to connect all his vast modern knowledge of natural science and biology to his new life in the spiritual world. He wrote daily notes, forming a coherent description of the relationship between the two worlds. He was given access by the Lord to any society or individual in the spiritual world that he desired to investigate. He was given the means by which to conduct experiments, such as for example, what happens to the mind when you experimentally remove from it this or that idea or belief.
Also, what happens when you supply this or that truth to an individual, or how people with different genius communicate with each other through others, in an information network, what the language of communication is in the spiritual world, how people form different cultures and civilizations can co-exist, and many such things.
He kept notes of his meetings and interviews in the spiritual world with thousands of people in all categories that were relevant to his science and culture. He was thus able to compare the understanding and state of life of many categories of people, comparing their demographics with their spiritual character. He was able to speak and travel with people in the spiritual world who had been born on other planets and thereby he gained an empirical knowledge of the varieties of the human race.
He was able to visit the high places and the low places of the spiritual world, encountering there the highest level of the human, and the most depraved. Because humans retain their ideas and attitudes when they pass on, they can be explored as to the details of their life and conduct. Swedenborg was able to make precise cause-effect observations between the ideas and loves we accumulate as our personality, and the quality of our life and experience in the spiritual world.
You can see from all this that no other writings can be compared with the Writings of Swedenborg. Now that the modern scientific Divine Rational Revelations have been given to the human race, it will take many generations before they are recognized and acknowledged by many.
Since , the year the last work of the Writings was published, there have been thousands of individuals who have recognized them and acknowledged them as Divine Revelations. Today, in the computer age of the Internet, the Writings have become available to anyone who desires them. The Lord manages every detail in the universe, hence also, who and when anyone gets to see the Writings, and then, what of it one can understand, love, and assimilate for life.
No one can see anything special and spiritual in the Writings who is not led by the Lord to do so. This is not some special favoritism or sectarianism of this or that new religion. The Writings are a complete work of rational science. The only requirement for access to higher human consciousness is to read the Writings as the Divine Word given to humankind for the enlightenment of rational consciousness. No religion is necessary, no teacher or guru, no initiation ceremony, no prior qualification of personality, orientation, or character.
Nothing is required except a modern scientific mind able to figure our and comprehend rational ideas laid down in a rational and scientific manner. In this book I have taken the rational arguments and proofs in the Writings and applied them to my understanding of reality and science.
As a trained professional scientist all my life I have carried my profession and science into the analysis and confirmation process of all that is in the Writings for anyone to verify. Today as each of us is born into the modern world and culture, we have the potential of becoming a celestial mind by means of regeneration, which goes on throughout our life in the physical body.
Once we awaken in the spiritual world, a few hours after the physical body dies, we begin a new life in a spirit-body that contains our will and understanding. These two organs are filled with our experiences, knowledge, and affections or loves. We are then to continue forever being the kind of individuals we became while maturing on earth. In the spiritual world all individuals feel totally free to be who or what they are in their loves and interests. In fact, they are compelled by the laws of the spiritual world to be on the outside what their affections or loves are on the inside.
While tied to a physical body, our inner madness, rage, and insanity do not show, being inhibited by society and consequences. But as soon as we awaken in our spirit-body, nothing that is within can be kept from coming out. Therefore by necessity there are Divine laws of reality in the spiritual world that keep the order and make continued life possible in that order. And so, regions and habitations are set up in the endless expanse of the spiritual world, in order to accommodate the life for every type of human beings that enter the world of spirits from the numerous earths in the universe.
There are heavens and there are hells, reflecting the character of those who live there. This book is about regeneration, which is the conscious discipline of character change based on the scientific principles revealed in the Writings. When we read the Writings we begin to understand regeneration in a medial, psychological, and educational perspective that is unique and new. Our prior understanding is based on the fundamental principle of nonduality, which is that all things exist in one continuum of the universe or reality.
When we begin to see things from the perspective of the Writings, we can replace every concept of nonduality into a duality. Every duality is by reference to the natural and the spiritual as two separate and distinct worlds, tied together by rational laws of correspondence that have now been revealed by God. In Volume 1 I show how rational analysis can be used to debunk and deconstruct concepts and notions of nonduality that are opposed to the dualities in our mind from the Writings.
Once our mind is rearranged in this new mode, we can begin regeneration, which requires us to cooperate with the Lord by shunning evils as sins because sins prevent the preparation of our mind for eternal life. This cooperation must be in all the specifics of our willing and thinking hour by hour, every day. In Volume 3 I explain how to do this systematically and effectively by means of spiritual disciplines. Others may also have an interest in the book, especially the wives of the men who are undergoing reformation and regeneration by means of the Writings.
Women are also going through the gradual process of regeneration and have to cooperate with the Lord in that process in order to be saved for heavenly life. They may find it useful to learn what their husbands are going through from a Doctrinal point of view. Men and women have categorically different patterns of regeneration because there can be no overlap of interior nature between men and women xx.
Also, this book discusses the content and quality of everyday thoughts and feelings of husbands who are undergoing reformation and regeneration. And since husbands resist conjugial love from hereditary antipathy, often fiercely and cruelly, their wives have to endure much abuse and unhappiness in the process of their regeneration. People who have not read the Writings may be interested in how I analyze important lifestyle concepts such as God, religion, spirituality, heaven and hell, love, truth, personality, and especially, the process of deepening marital relations.
The New Church mind, as defined in the Writings, is to be formed entirely and solely from what is written in the Writings. The New Church mind contains many traditional views and ideals. It accepts the Christian virtues, supports law and order, supports liberty for all, puts patriotism and religion as its highest values along with marriage, parenting, and a strong educational system for all.
The New Church mind supports human rights, equality between the genders, equal opportunity for all, constitutional democracy, and a strong defense system to protect the homeland. All these things are traditional values in our society and history and forms a part of the New Church mind. No religious or spiritual mystery is allowed in the New Church mind, but only that which is explainable rationally.
This is because the Lord has, in a rational way, revealed in the Writings all the former mysteries of religion, philosophy, and science. It is not necessary to join a religious denomination or Church in order to form the New Church mind in oneself. The only requirements and methods are from the Writings. The New Church mind cannot be formed solely by the traditional values mentioned, without undergoing reformation and regeneration. This means that everything in the mind must be rearranged.
Our moment by moment willing and thinking must be radically changed. For it is the case with the life of charity which is the heavenly life itself that with those who are being reformed and regenerated it is continually being born and growing up and receiving increments, and this by means of truths; therefore the more of truth there is insinuated, the more is the life of charity perfected …. In truth, however, there is no life, but in good. Truth is only a recipient of life, that is, of good.
Truth is as the clothing or garment of good; therefore also truths are called in the Word "clothing," and also "garments. The Writings explain why reformation is necessary. The reason given is that we are born with a natural mind and with the potential of developing also a spiritual mind. The spiritual mind is required for a life in heaven after the life in the physical world.
This book presents practical methods for husbands who want to form the New Church mind in themselves. It is not a commentary on other systems of religion and philosophy. Every group must find its own truth and method of salvation. Liberty for every group to do this is essential for progress, peace, and freedom. Thus, I speak only for what should be the New Church mind as defined by the Writings. I have attempted to justify every assertion by reference to the Writings. If you find anything that you think is a misinterpretation, please write me email address: leon hawaii.
The places marked by xx are still to be filled in. If you have any of these citations at hand, please email them to me. The standard Title of the Work referred to in these citations is given at the end. The Word is the Divine Truth which is in the Lord and from the Lord … Divine Truth has power in itself, and such power that, by means of it, heaven was created and the world with all things therein. HH Without the Lord's coming into the world no one could have been saved. It is the same today; and therefore without the Lord's coming again into the world in Divine truth, which is the Word, no one can be saved.
TCR 3. This book is about the spiritual Doctrine that each man is to extract from the Word of the Writings, by applying the literal sense to oneself, to the hundreds of willing and thinking acts we perform every day in the course of our normal activities. This use of the literal sense is required for our reformation, regeneration, and salvation for eternal life in heaven.
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Every time we apply in this way one of the literal sentences from the Writings, we are enlightened by the Lord so that we can perceive the spiritual sense within the literal. This conscious process counts as cooperation with the Lord in our regeneration. Without this active conscious daily habitual cooperation with the Lord, we cannot be regenerated. This will be proven in the book by many citations from the Writings.
It is the spiritual understanding of Doctrine that constitutes faith and truth.
- Language Ideologies and the Globalization of Standard Spanish (Advances in Sociolinguistics);
- Devoted. Attentive. Receptive..
- Revival of the Gnostic Heresy.
- PDF at vxsorjmtth.cf;
- Theology (Notes and Essays) | Theology | Grace In Christianity.
The Lord infills true faith with Divine Love, and from this union we have closeness with Him, love unto Him, and new interior celestial truths that make us wise like an angel, and capable of conjugial union with the wife. To my wife. It is her internal wisdom that led me to write this book as-of myself. She brought into our marriage the conjugial love she has in her from the Lord, inborn from nativity.
An inclination to love one of the opposite sex, and with it a capacity for receiving that love, has been implanted in Christians from birth, for the reason that this love comes from the Lord alone CL Wives are by birth forms of love, so that it is innate in them to wish to be one with their husbands … But it is different with husbands; since they are not by birth forms of love, but designed to receive that love from their wives CL The intelligence of women is by nature modest, gracious, peaceable, compliant, soft and gentle, while the intelligence of men is by nature critical, rough, resistant, argumentative, and given to intemperance.
Evidence that this is the nature of women and the nature of men is clearly apparent from the body, face, tone of voice, speech, bearing and behavior of each sex. From this I could clearly see that a man is born a form of the intellect, and a woman a form of love. I could also see what the nature of the intellect is and what the nature of love is in their beginnings, and thus what a man's intellect in its development would be like without conjunction with feminine love and eventually conjugial love. CL The Word is the only doctrine which teaches how a man must live in the world in order to be happy to eternity.
AC There are two states that man must enter upon and pass through, when from being natural he is becoming spiritual. The first state is called Reformation, and the second Regeneration. In the first man looks from his natural to his spiritual state and longs for that state; in the second state he becomes spiritual-natural.
The first state is formed by means of truths, which must be truths of faith, and through these he looks to charity; the second state is formed by means of the goods of charity, and by these he enters into the truths of faith. Or what is the same, the first is a state of thought from the understanding, and the second a state of love from the will. When this latter state begins and is progressing, a change takes place in the mind; the mind undergoes a reversal, the love of the will then flowing into the understanding, acting upon it and leading it to think in accord and agreement with its love; and in consequence so far as the good of love comes to act the first part and the truths of faith the second, man is spiritual and is a new creature; and he then acts from charity and speaks from faith; he feels the good of charity and perceives the truth of faith; and he is then in the Lord, and in peace, and thus regenerate.
The man who while in the world has entered upon the first state, after death can be introduced into the second; but he who has not entered into the first state while in the world, cannot after death be introduced into the second, thus cannot be regenerated. This means that every spiritual truth found in the Writings is to be taken as a Divine Commandment.
Every idea and concept we acquire elsewhere must be kept separated in the external of our knowledge or memory and not allowed to commingle in the mind that is to be formed exclusively by the Writings. The New Church mind, as defined here, is not the New Church mind unless it is formed exclusively by the Writings. The situation to-day is similar. So unless the Lord comes into the world again in the form of Divine Truth, that is, the Word, no more can anyone now be saved.
You can see from this that the New Church mind can be saved only by means of the Writings and through no other means. Whatever exists in the world today that is not from this new Word, cannot be for the salvation of the New Church mind. All Christian people draw their doctrines from the Word as being their one and only source. TCR God's Word is the source whence all theology must be derived Letters 7. What in particular concerns the doctrine that now follows, is that it also is out of heaven, because it is from the spiritual sense of the Word; and the spiritual sense of the Word is identical with the doctrine which is in heaven.
The existence of writings in the heavens is a provision of the Lord for the sake of the Word; for the Word in its essence is Divine truth, and from it is all heavenly wisdom, both with men and with angels; for the Word was dictated by the Lord, and what is dictated by the Lord passes through all the heavens in order and terminates with man. Thereby it is adapted both to the wisdom of angels and the intelligence of men. Thereby, too, the angels have a Word, and read it the same as men do on the earth, and also draw from it their doctrinals, and preach from it AC n.
It is the same Word; but its natural sense, which is the sense of the letter with us, does not exist in heaven, but only the spiritual sense, which is its internal sense. What this sense is can be seen in the small treatise on The White Horse spoken of in the Apocalypse. No other books can be a source of spiritual truths for the New Church mind. All spiritual truths in our mind must be from the Writings, and no idea that is not from the Writings can be taken as spiritual truth for the New Church mind. While the Old Testament and the New Testament are also the Word, they can only be understood spiritually through the Writings.
Hence the only source of regeneration is the Word, which for the New Church mind, is the Writings. TCR 1. For there is a Church in heaven as well as on earth; for the Word is there, doctrine is there from the Word; temples are there, in which sermons are delivered; because ecclesiastical and civil governments are there.
In a word, the only difference between the things which are in the heavens, and those which are on earth, is, that all the things in the heavens are in a state of greater perfection, because all who are there are spiritual, and spiritual things immensely exceed in perfection those that are natural. The Word is to be found in all the heavens and is the source of the angels' wisdom.
The Word in heaven is written in a spiritual style which is quite different from the natural style. The spiritual style is composed simply of letters, each one of which denotes a particular meaning; and there are dashes, curves and points above, between and within the letters, which heighten the meaning. The letters used by the angels of the spiritual kingdom resemble printed type in our world; the letters used by the angels of the celestial kingdom are in some cases like Arabic letters, in others like ancient Hebrew letters, but with curves above and below, and pointing above, between and inside them.
Even a single one of these points conveys a complete meaning. The spiritual sense cannot be written down in a natural language, and neither can the spiritual Doctrine drawn from this sense, since these two are identical. Note also that the spiritual sense of the Writings in heaven also have a letter! Without an outward letter of the Word there is no writing possible. So the outward containant of the holy truths from the Lord, is the letter the angels have. The angelic writing mode varies in accordance with the level of thinking in the three heavens, as the passage above describes it TCR Those in heaven pay attention to the Word in the letter and perceive things there in exactly the same way as anyone is accustomed to perceive a person's thought as it presents itself in spoken words, or in the inmost heaven as anyone is accustomed to perceive a person's aims or end in view.
Note therefore that the spiritual sense of the Writings only exists in the understanding because it is impossible to render it in the letter of the Word. If it were possible, the angels would not need a letter of the Word within which they can see and receive spiritual things! But the highest angels also need a letter for the Word, written in visible script, as discussed just above. This is a rational matter to understand and follows from discrete degrees in all things created see Chapter 5 Section 6.
Clearly then, the natural literal sentences in the Writings cannot be same as the spiritual truths.