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  4. The History of the World: From the Dawn of Humanity to the Modern Age - Frank Welsh - Google книги

This is why heart disease, obesity and diabetes are increasing so quickly in many developing countries. In both developed and developing countries a time-bomb of disease is ticking because of mismatch — and a radical shift in public health strategy is needed to break the obesity cycle. This message is the easiest and most convenient for governments. Is this behaviour a result of our own conscious choices rather than lying in a more fundamental biologically determined mismatch requiring novel solutions? And that message of individual fault suits the pharmaceutical industry because it creates a market for diet pills and cholesterol lowering agents.

But the concept of mismatch also offers new solutions.

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A greater focus on early human development will change how our biology develops and make it easier to cope in our new energy rich world. Indeed we know those who start life badly are more likely to get fat and to have hardwiring of their brains to prefer to eat fat and exercise less —we can change this.

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We need to shift resources and think on a different time scale. Are we designed to have babies at the age of 45? Virtually all women were dead by that age years ago. We have yet to confront the real consequences; are we designed to spend our reproductive lives filled with contraceptives and having only one baby?

How does that contribute to the risks of breast cancer? Thinking in this way tells us much more about the human condition. And while in many cases our changed priorities mean we must live with the costs, we need to understand them and that understanding may give us new solutions. We must find strategies to help developing countries to manage a path through economic transition that avoids the disastrous consequences of mismatch.

We cannot go back to living as hunter-gatherers on the African savannah, so what should we do? Is there time for us to evolve our way out of the situation before disaster strikes? Will new medical technologies such as gene therapy help? We are living longer and older people need more healthcare — but should we be spending a bigger proportion of our health budget on young people to prevent the future consequences of disease caused by mismatch?

He has received much international recognition for his research into fetal life and the consequences of problems during this period. He trained and practiced as a pediatrician and pediatric endocrinologist and his research is largely focused at the interaction between evolution, development and disease. He is the author of over scientific papers and reviews. He has edited seven books and co-authored with Professor Mark Hanson, The Fetal Matrix; evolution, development and disease, CUP ; a semi-popular book in the field of evolutionary medicine.

He commits much time to the popularization and public understanding of medical science.

History of science

This is his first book designed for the general reader. Professor Mark Hanson DPhil is a physiologist with similar interests in evolution, development and disease. He directs the Centre for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease at the University of Southampton, which ranges in research from molecular biology and epigenetics to epidemiology, clinical physiology and nutrition. He has published over papers and reviews, edited six books and co-authored two books with Professor Peter Gluckman.

He has experience of teaching a wide range of students in medicine and biological sciences at both undergraduate and postgraduate level, and has a formal teaching qualification. He is also an exhibited artist with an interest in the conjunction between art and science.

A brief history of Western culture

Others disagree. Globalisation has been attacked by critics of free market economics, like the economists Joseph Stiglitz and Ha-Joon Chang, for perpetuating inequality in the world rather than reducing it. Some agree that they may have a point. The International Monetary Fund admitted in that inequality levels may have been increased by the introduction of new technology and the investment of foreign capital in developing countries. Others, in developed nations, distrust globalisation as well.

They fear that it often allows employers to move jobs away to cheaper places. However, economic historians reckon the question of whether the benefits of globalisation outweigh the downsides is more complicated than this. For them, the answer depends on when you say the process of globalisation started. But why does it matter whether globalisation started 20, , or even 2, years ago? Early economists would certainly have been familiar with the general concept that markets and people around the world were becoming more integrated over time. Although Adam Smith himself never used the word, globalisation is a key theme in the Wealth of Nations.

His description of economic development has as its underlying principle the integration of markets over time. As the division of labour enables output to expand, the search for specialisation expands trade, and gradually, brings communities from disparate parts of the world together. The trend is nearly as old as civilisation. Eventually armourers to craft bows and arrows, carpenters to build houses, and seamstress to make clothing all appeared as specialist artisans, trading their wares for food produced by the hunters and shepherds.

As villages, towns, countries and continents started trading goods that they were efficient at making for ones they were not, markets became more integrated, as specialisation and trade increased. Smith had a particular example in mind when he talked about market integration between continents: Europe and America.

The discovery of Native Americans by European traders enabled a new division of labour between the two continents. As European currencies were generally based on the value of silver, any change in its value would have had big effects on the European price level.

The History of the World: From the Dawn of Humanity to the Modern Age - Frank Welsh - Google книги

Smith himself argued this was one of the greatest economic changes that resulted from the discovery of the Americas:. The discovery of the abundant mines of America, reduced, in the sixteenth century, the value of gold and silver in Europe to about a third of what it had been before.

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As it cost less labour to bring those metals from the mine to the market, so, when they were brought thither, they could purchase or command less labour; and this revolution in their value, though perhaps the greatest, is by no means the only one of which history gives some account.

The influx of about , tonnes of silver from Mexico and Bolivia by the Spanish and Portuguese Empires after reversed the downwards price trends of the medieval period. Trees have single trunks that splay out into neatly dividing branches. They shift our thoughts toward single origins. Even if humans were widespread throughout Africa , years ago, surely we must have started somewhere. Not so, according to the African-multiregionalism advocates.

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We evolved within these groups, which occasionally mated with each other, and perhaps with other contemporaneous hominids like Homo naledi. These streams eventually merge into the same big channel, but it takes time—hundreds of thousands of years. For most of our history, any one group of Homo sapiens had just some of the full constellation of features that we use to define ourselves. But there was then a continent-wide trend to the modern human form. Our behavior likely evolved in the same patchwork way.

For a few million years, hominids made the same style of large stone handaxes from one millennium to the next. But that technological stagnation ended around , years ago—the same age as the earliest Homo sapiens fossils. From that time period, archeologists have recovered new kinds of specialized and sophisticated stone tools, like awls and spear tips.

These tools of the so-called Middle Stone Age show that the modern human mind developed at roughly the same time as the modern human body.