- Sales Management (Marketing Series: Practitioner)
- Ambition | 50 Best Sales Management Articles of the Decade
- 50 Best Sales Management Articles of the Decade
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Sales Management (Marketing Series: Practitioner)
Subscribe here to get our weekly updates delivered each episode to your inbox. Bernie leads transformational change that results in new levels of marketin g achievements for his clients. This article originally appeared on Social Business Engine and has been republished with permission. Find out how to syndicate your content with B2C.
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Spotlighting Those With Digital Sales Transformation Stories To Tell Many sales and marketing related podcasts feature authors or sales coaches who help individuals increase their sales skills to advance their careers. Outline of This Episode  The direction and purpose of the Social Business Engine podcast  A quick recap of the most recent episodes highlighting SAP  5 episodes that highlight the focus of the SBE podcast  A final request from Bernie: Would you rate and review the podcast?
Stay Connected Join over 50, of your peers and receive our weekly newsletter which features the top trends, news and expert analysis to help keep you ahead of the curve. Get the best of B2C in your inbox: Subscribe to our newsletter Sign up. Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection, utility and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions" p.
She has shown that amphoras used in Mediterranean trade between and BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which provided information for transactions. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a largely pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of origin and even the identity of the producer which were understood to convey information about product quality.
Moore and Reid, for example, have argued that the distinctive shapes and markings in ancient containers should be termed proto-brands rather than modern brands. In England and Europe during the Middle Ages, market towns sprang up. Some analysts have suggested that the term, 'marketing,' may have first been used in the context of market towns where the term 'marketing' may have been used by producers to describe the process of carting and selling their produce and wares in market towns.
Blintiff has investigated the early Medieval networks of market towns and suggests that by the 12th century there was an upsurge in the number of market towns and the emergence of merchant circuits as traders bulked up surpluses from smaller regional, different day markets and resold them at the larger centralised market towns. Braudel and Reynold have made a systematic study of these European market towns between the thirteenth and fifteenth century.
Their investigation shows that in regional districts markets were held once or twice a week, while daily markets were more common in the larger cities and towns. Over time, permanent shops began to open daily and gradually supplanted the periodic markets. Peddlers filled in the gaps in distribution by travelling door-to-door in order to sell produce and wares. The physical market was characterised by transactional exchange, bartering systems were commonplace and the economy was characterised by local trading. Braudel reports that, in , goods travelled relatively short distances - grain 5—10 miles; cattle 40—70 miles; wool and wollen cloth 20—40 miles.
However, following the European age of discovery, goods were imported from afar - calico cloth from India, porcelain, silk and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World. Although the rise of consumer culture and marketing in Britain and Europe have been studied extensively, less is known about developments elsewhere. The rise of a consumer culture led to the commercial investment in carefully managed company image, retail signage, symbolic brands, trademark protection and the brand concepts of baoji, hao, lei, gongpin, piazi and pinpai, which roughly equate with Western concepts of family status, quality grading, and upholding traditional Chinese values p.
Eckhardt and Bengtsson's analysis suggests that brands emerged in China as a result of the social needs and tensions implicit in consumer culture, in which brands provide social status and stratification. Thus, the evolution of brands in China stands in sharp contrast to the West where manufacturers pushed brands onto the market in order to differentiate, increase market share and ultimately profits pp — Scholars have identified specific instances of marketing practices in England and Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
As trade between countries or regions grew, companies required information on which to base business decisions. Individuals and companies carried out formal and informal research on trade conditions. As early as , Johann Fugger travelled from Augsburg to Graben in order to gather information on the international textile industry. He exchanged detailed letters on trade conditions in relevant areas. In the early 18th-century, Daniel Defoe , a London merchant, published information on trade and economic resources of England and Scotland.
Other scholars have found evidence of advertising and promotion in eighteenth century France and Italy as well as Britain. Far from being primitive efforts, early advertising showed a high level of sophistication in its execution and abilility to reach mass audiences. English industrialists, Josiah Wedgewood and Matthew Boulton , are often portrayed as pioneers of modern mass marketing methods.
He also inferred that selling at lower prices would lead to higher demand and recognised the value of achieving scale economies in production. By cutting costs and lowering prices, Wedgewood was able to generate higher overall profits. He also practiced planned obsolescence and understood the importance of 'celebrity marketing' - that is supplying the nobility, often at prices below cost and of obtaining royal patronage, for the sake of the publicity and cudos generated. Fullerton argues that the practice of market segmentation emerged well before marketers used the notion formally.
The business historian, Richard S. Tedlow , argues that any attempt to segment markets prior to was highly fragmented since the economy was characterised by small, regional suppliers who mostly sold goods on a local or regional basis.
Outside the major metropolitan cities, few stores could afford to serve one type of clientele exclusively. However, gradually retail shops introduced innovations that would allow them to separate wealthier customers from the lower classes and peasants.
Ambition | 50 Best Sales Management Articles of the Decade
One technique was to have a window opening out onto the street from which customers could be served. This allowed the sale of goods to the common people, without encouraging them to come inside. Another solution, that came into vogue from the late sixteenth century was to invite favoured customers into a back-room of the store, where goods were permanently on display. Yet another technique that emerged around the same time was to hold a showcase of goods in the shopkeeper's private home for the benefit of wealthier clients.
Samuel Pepys, for example, writing in , describes being invited to the home of a retailer to view a wooden jack. A study of the German book trade found examples of both product differentiation and market segmentation in the s. Until the nineteenth century, Western economies were characterised by small regional suppliers who sold goods on a local or regional basis. However, as transportation systems improved from the mid nineteenth century, the economy became more unified allowing companies to distribute standardised, branded goods at national level.
This gave rise to a much broader mass marketing mindset. Manufacturers tended to insist on strict standardisation in order to achieve scale economies with a view to keeping production costs down and also to achieving market penetration in the early stages of a product's life cycle. In the early twentieth century, as market size increased, it became more commonplace for manufacturers to produce a variety of models pitched at different quality points designed to meet the needs of various demographic and lifestyle market segments, giving rise to the widespread practice of market segmentation and product differentation.
This insight led to the exploration of other factors such as lifestyles, values, attitudes and beliefs in market segmentation and advertising. When Wendell R. Smith published his now classic article, Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies in , he noted that he was simply documenting marketing practices that had been observed for some time and which he described as a "natural force". As industry grew, the demand for skilled business professionals also grew.
To meet this demand, universities began offering courses in commerce, economics and marketing. Marketing, as a discipline, was first taught in universities in the very early twentieth century. From the outset, researchers tended to identify two strands of historical research; the history of marketing practice  and the history of marketing thought which was fundamentally concerned with the rise of marketing education and dissecting the way that marketing was taught and studied. The practice of marketing may have been carried out for millennia, but the modern concept of marketing as a professional practice appears to have emerged the post industrial corporate world.
A key question that has preoccupied researchers is whether it is possible to identify specific orientations or mindsets that inform key periods in marketing's evolution. Marketers disagree about the way that marketing practice has evolved over time. In the marketing literature, continuing debate surrounds the orientations or philosophies that might have informed marketing practice at different periods of time.
50 Best Sales Management Articles of the Decade
An orientation may be defined as "the type of activity or subject that an organisation seems most interested in and gives most attention to". The general lack of agreement amongst scholars as to what constitutes clearly identifiable periods and the orientation that characterised each distinct period has spawned a lengthy list of orientations. Space prevents an exhaustive description of all periods or eras. However, the salient features of the most commonly cited periods appear in the following section.
A production orientation is often proposed as the first of the so-called orientations that dominated business thought. Keith dated the production era from the s to the s, but other theorists argue that evidence of the production orientation can still be found in some companies or industries.
Specifically Kotler and Armstrong note that the production philosophy is "one of the oldest philosophies that guides sellers" and "is still useful in some situations". The production orientation is characterised by: . The selling orientation is thought to have begun during the Great Depression and continued well into the s although examples of this orientation can still be found today. Characteristics of the marketing orientation: .
Phillip Kotler is often credited with first proposing the societal marketing orientation or concept in an article published in the Harvard Business Review in The societal marketing concept adopts the position that marketers have a greater social responsibility than simply satisfying customers and providing them with superior value.
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- 7 skills you’ll need to master in order to become a sales manager.
So you want to become a sales manager? Want to get a ready-made set of resources to manage a sales team effectively? Download our sales management toolkit that contains checklists, templates, scripts and more. While the definition of sales manager can actually vary quite a bit from organization to organization, in the primary context of B2B companies like those we work with most , a sales manager is defined as:.
A sales manager is responsible for building, leading and managing a team of salespeople within an organization. So if you're asking, what does a sales manager do, the answer is: sales managers are charged with several mission critical functions within most organizations. That includes activities like:. Some of these sales manager responsibilities can overlap with those of other related roles depending upon the size and internal structure of your organization.
Especially when it comes to titles like Sales Director or Head of Sales positions, which tend to be more senior and concerned with organizational strategy, than the average sales manager role. Check out this side-by-side comparison between an open sales manager role and an open head of sales role to see the subtle and not so subtle differences:. The head of sales job posting clearly highlight just how much of the job function is concerned with strategy and direction rather than the active management of people that shines through in the sales manager posting.
That position is a whole lot different than spending most of your day working directly with individual sales reps, helping them to close more deals and achieve revenue targets—which is what a sales manager does. If you want to become a sales manager, start with perfecting and then showcasing these key skills throughout your interview process. While much of your job as a sales manager will be focused on enabling your existing team to continue performing better over time, keeping new candidates coming in the front door to replace those that either move up or out—and add to the strength of your sales team—is just as important.
However, by far the best way to improve in your ability to spot and incentivize top talent is to, well… start doing it today. Express your interest in eventually moving up and ask to sit in on some interviews with your manager. Spend a few minutes each day reaching out to potential candidates and starting conversations you can learn from over time.
Ask yourself what does a sales manager do that I could start doing already now? Take an interest and predict which people end up making it furthest in the interview process. Who goes on to become a top-performing rep? When sourcing candidates for internal sales jobs , keep this in mind:. When you hired and trained top sales talent, one of the most important skills is to constantly keep them engaged, put new challenges in front of them, and give them the support they need to master these challenges.
The best sales people are often competitive by nature, and a great way of channeling their competitive energy into productive channels is to have a sales leaderboard reps can use to keep score. One tip to get the most out of sales leaderboards: Don't just track results deals closed, revenue generated, etc.
Instead, also track activities that drive results: Number of calls made, number of emails sent, number of Opportunities a sales rep created, and so on. The purpose of a leaderboard is not just to celebrate your top-performers, but also to acknowledge those who are putting in extra effort. Well, not quite. Successfully navigating each of these activities with your team on a regular basis—helping them through the inevitable stormy weather along the way—takes a massive amount of initiative.
Start a purpose-driven club and organize events that get other employees off their feet, taking action. Experiment within your own role with ideas to spearhead positive change, rather than waiting for top-down change to come your way. Launch your own side project and show you can execute on building a business.
How about with coaching fellow reps through a particularly challenging deal? Are multiple reps experiencing the same challenges? What kinds of blockers are standing in the way to hitting quarterly targets? Grow in your ability to not only identify, but answer these kinds of questions and your value as a sales manager will be all but proven already. Similar to building your experience as a leader, proving your ability at launching into the mental space of an individual rep and being able to help them troubleshoot the best way to negotiate around an objection, is something you can start doing today.
Like it or not, implementing processes and regularly planning are both essential to maintaining a successful business model as your sales team grows and the company scales over time. When Steli first ran his own sales team, he was admittedly a pretty lousy sales manager.