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As this study shows, in the future the diffusion of sustainable technologies requires site champions and large-scale case studies that demonstrate their successful introduction in the mining value chain. Possibility of increasing intensity of mining by mechanization with use of shearer loaders.
Discusses methods of increasing productivity of face systems in longwall mining. Feasibility of increasing coal output by variation of shearer loader haulage speed is analyzed. Effects of haulage speed variation on energy consumption or cutting tool wear are not considered. It is assumed that haulage speed does not depend on advance rate of the powered supports or the rate of face conveyor advance.
Mathematical equations are derived for calculation of the optimum haulage speed variations. The method consists in use of variable haulage speed optimized for a given section of a longwall face without overloading the conveyor drive system. Situations with single drum shearer loaders and with bi-directional shearer loaders with cutting drums situated at both ends of the shearer are analyzed. Analyses show that by haulage speed variation shearer loader productivity is significantly increased.
In Polish. Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system , when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system.
Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control- system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems.
The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.
Mine drivage in hydraulic mines. Range of mine drivage is high due to the large number of shortwalls mined by hydraulic monitors. Reducing mining cost in hydraulic mines depends on lowering drivage cost by use of new drivage systems or by increasing efficiency of drivage systems used at present. The following drivage methods used in hydraulic mines are compared: heading machines with hydraulic haulage of cut rocks and coal, hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage , drilling and blasting with hydraulic haulage of blasted rocks.
Mining and geologic conditions which influence selection of the optimum mine drivage system are analyzed. Standardized cross sections of mine roadways driven by the 3 methods are shown in schemes. Support systems used in mine roadways are compared: timber supports, roof bolts, roof bolts with steel elements, and roadways driven in rocks without a support system.
Data on mine drivage in hydraulic coal mines in the Kuzbass are discussed. Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. Akkulam Veli AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices.
Path dependence, fragmented property rights and the slow diffusion of high throughput technologies in inter-war British coal mining. This article examines the importance of path dependence effects in impeding the diffusion of high throughput mechanized mining systems in the British coal industry. It demonstrates that the industry had become 'locked in' to low throughput underground haulage technology, on account of institutional interrelatedness between Britain's traditional practice of extensive in-seam mining and its unique system of fragmented, privately owned mineral royalties.
Fragmented royalties prevented the concentration of workings and introduction of high throughput main haulage systems that underpinned the rapid productivity growth of European producers. Meanwhile, technical interrelatedness between the haulage systems taking coal to the pit shaft and operations further 'upstream' created bottlenecks which both slowed the overall rate of mechanization and limited the productivity gains from the mechanization that did occur.
A proposal of Transport System Improvement in exploiting and processing of raw materials. Full Text Available In handling earth, aggregate rock, ore, coal and other materials, trucks serve one purpose. They are hauling units which, because of their high speed when operating on suitable roads, have high capacities and provide relatively low hauling costs. They provide a high degree of flexibility as their number may be decreased or increased easily to permit modifications in the total hauling capacity of a fleet. In cyclic operations, the two principal operations are loading and haulage with hoisting as a third optional.
In continuous operations, where machines combine the breakage and handling functions, cutting, drilling and blasting are eliminated and extraction and loading are performed in a single operation or function excavation, e. Materials handling in modern mechanized mining is equipment oriented.
Unit operations are characterized by, and sometimes identified with, an equipment that performs them. Thus the field terminology refers to a mining shovel, stripping dragline or the coal loader. From time to time the mining engineer is faced with the necessity to make a haulage study to determine not only the most suitable method of hauling materials, but also the most effective and economical type of equipment used for the operation. Key words: truck haulage , material handling, mining shovel. Requirements towards an ecologically based heavy vehicle charge for road haulage ; Anforderungen an eine umweltorientierte Schwerverkehrsabgabe fuer den Strassengueterverkehr.
The report investigates the consequences of introducing a kilometre-based road user charge for heavy goods vehicles with a gross weight over 12 tons on the German inter-urban road network in Starting from the calculations of average road infrastructure costs presented by the Government Commission for Infrastructure Financing in September , toll levels of 0. In the latter case an additional improvement of railway service supply is considered. The effects of the resulting three pricing scenarios investigated embrace the shift of traffic to the secondary road network, productivity increase within the transport sector, effects on the fleet structure and the reactions of shippers with respect to transport demand, modal choice and location choice.
For these purpose, different models, data sources and current experiences, mainly from Switzerland, have been applied. The results are expressed in changes of the vehicle mileage and the development of an environmental cost indicator by mode, road type, vehicle weight and emission factor in The study concludes, that due to the application of efficiency measures, increased cost burdens of the hauliers can be partly compensated.
Thus, the estimated shift of demand from road to rail is found to be rather modest. In case of a charge of 0. Very positive conclusions are drawn on the possibility of increasing the share of clean lorries by a differentiation of tariffs by emission classes. The results indicate, that the introduction of an emission based toll regime is able to initiate a sustainable development in freight transport. Ausgehend von den mittleren Wegekosten, welche im September von der Regierungskommission Infrastrukturfinanzierung Paellmann-Kommission veroeffentlicht wurden, werden durchschnittliche Gebuehrensaetze von 25 Pf.
Im letzteren Fall wird zusaetzlich ein verbessertes Bahnangebotes betrachtet. Die fuer die drei Preisszenarien untersuchten Auswirkungen umfassen die Verkehrsverlagerung auf das nachgeordnete Strassennetz, Produktivitaetssteigerungen im Fuhrgewerbe, den Umbau der Fahrzeugflotte, sowie die Reaktionen von Versendern bezueglich Modalwahl, Verkehrsvermeidung und Standortwahl. Zu deren Quantifizierung wurden verschiedene Modelle, Datenquellen und aktuelle Erfahrungen vornehmlich aus der Schweiz herangezogen.
Die Ergebnisse werden in Veraenderungen der Fahrleistungen und der Entwicklung externer Kosten nach Verkehrstraeger, Strassentyp, Fahrzeuggewicht, Emissionsklasse ausgedrueckt. Die Studie ergibt, dass aufgrund von Produktivitaetssteigerungen im Transportgewerbe die durch die SVA hervorgerufenen Kostensteigerungen teilweise aufgefangen werden koennen. Entsprechend ergibt sich nur eine relativ moderate Verlagerung der Verkehrsnachfrage auf die Schiene. Im Falle einer Gebuehrenhoehe von 40 Pf. Eine sehr positive Bilanz wird ueber den Einfluss emissionsabhaengiger Gebuehrensaetze auf den Einsatz sauberer Fahrzeuge gezogen.
Hervorgehoben wird der Anstoss einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung im Gueterverkehr. Heat pump applications using municipal effluent : Joint Abbottsford mission environmental system J. The results of the study indicate that the biosolids process heating and biosolids drying had the biggest potential. Until the cost of natural gas doubles compared to the rates in the Spring of , it is deemed that a heat pump system at Joint Abbottsford Mission Environmental System JAMES would not represent a cost-effective option.
This conclusion is based on the following: 1 most of the plant's heating needs can be met by the volume of digester gas produced at the plant, 2 natural gas is used as a supplemental heating fuel, 3 a significant initial capital cost in the range of , dollars would be required for a kW system used for heating biosolids, whereas the continued use of natural gas and digester gas at the plant does not require additional capital cost, and 4 natural gas is still relatively inexpensive based on rates in the Spring of The study also includes the evaluation of a conceptual process for biosolids drying, with the aim of reducing haulage costs.
It is estimated that the potential savings would be approximately , dollars annually, despite the high initial capital cost of 5 to 10 million dollars. The cost effectiveness of biosolids drying will change as a result of the recent plant expansion that was completed in December that impacts on the quantities of biosolids and biogas produced. Once a reasonable track record for the upgraded plant is available in approximately six months, it is recommended that the biosolids process be re-evaluated at that time.
The conclusions of the JAMES treatment plant should not be used to rule out the use of heat pump for other wastewater treatment plants. For those wastewater treatment plants that do not produce digester gas, heat pumps would be more cost effective, as well as being considered for a new wastewater treatment plant heating system , and not for a retrofit of an existing plant. Stable and flexible under power; Stabil und flexibel unter Strom. If conveyor routes, shelve service devices, hall cranes or other haulage equipment - all this systems want to be supported economically, securely and reliably by energy.
Optimized energy chains and gliding connect with innovative details function as probate systems. Also touchless energy- and data transmission technologies open an immense potential. Jabiluka project - Draft Environmental Impact Statement. The Appendices provide various technical data in support of studies presented in the Main Report, including the guidelines for an EIS at Jabiluka, environmental requirements, waste management plan, water management system criteria, water quality data, transport licensing and security procedures, rehabilitation plus specialist studies into ore characteristics, noise issues and haulage risk assessment.
Copyright Energy Resources of Australia Limited. Underground coal equipment. This paper reports on increasing automation and enhanced productivity on longwalls, new development cutting and bolting technologies and haulage systems. Design aspects of the Alpha Repository. The various types of haulage and excavation equipment that may be suitable for use in the development and excavation of the Alpha repository are described with discussion of the advantages, disadvantages, expected costs, availability, and special features of each.
The various equipment suites are delineated, and the costs of mining and transportation of the salt are presented and discussed. Individual manufacturers contacted and equipment considered are listed. Most of the equipment is ''off-the-shelf''; however, some manufactuers were contacted that do custom work because of their expertise in salt mining equipment. The costs of custom equipment are comparable to those for standard equipment. Double loading and unloading plant for EHB containers.
An integrated haulage system was installed for the shafts of the 'Eschweiler Bergwerksverein', Emil Mayrisch colliery and Anna colliery for the purpose of cost reduction. Transport problems resulting from different floor levels and track gauges were solved by means of a double loading and unloading plant for EHB containers at the m level of Anna mine. The mode of operation, the hydraulic system , and the control system of the loading and unloading plant are described. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track? Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off.
This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, which is presented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which indicate the economic performance of the intermodal freight system. The truck-only system is always regarded as the counterpart of the intermodal freight system in this dissertation. To examine the environmental performance of the intermodal freight system , CO2 emissions generated from all the processes in the intermodal chain, such as pre- haulage and post- haulage , long distance haulage , and transshipment, are estimated considering different sources that generate electricity and transmission loss of electricity Chapters 3 and 4.
Finally, this dissertation attempts to find the trade-off between CO2 emissions representing the environmental performance and freight transportation cost representing the economic performance Chapter 7. Assessing effects of chemical treatment on mechanical properties of transported anthracite. A method is discussed for control of anthracite comminution during coal haulage in underground mines.
Coal hauled by belt conveyors was sprayed with MFF-M urea formaldehyde resin and oxalic acid used as a hardener. Design of the UAP experimental spraying system successfully tested in some coal mines in the Donbass is shown in a scheme. Effects of anthracite spraying on toxicity of fire gases were analyzed. Gas emission was analyzed at C and at C. Content of the following compounds in fire gases was determined: hydrocyanic acid, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, methanol.
Evaluations showed that toxicity increase was within the permissible limits with the exception of hydrocyanic acid. In the case of underground fires in areas of haulage lines with resin spraying systems , members of rescue teams should use special equipment protecting the respiratory system from hydrocyanic acid. Automation of belts; Automatizacion de Cintas de Interior.
Project's targets were to develop, implement and commission a distributed control system for underground mining, which should allow the control and optimisation of the whole continuous haulage network. It should also integrate statutory safety features required for both winning and haulage. The system is capable of controlling the most common devices used in underground coal mining transport networks, like conveyor belts, armored conveyors, regulation silos, etc. Moreover, the system implements statutory safety functions for conveyor belt operation, and for mining activities carried out in culls de sac.
Specifically, for its relationship with the transport system , it should monitor secondary ventilation, fire damp and toxic gases concentration, and mains power presence in the culls de sac, which have already reached a length of m. The prototype was installed in the mine that Carbones de Pedraforca owns in Saldes, Barcelona. System Budgets. The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems six generations , system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers Ventilation systems.
The present paper deals with - controlled area ventilation systems - ventilation systems for switchgear-building and control-room - other ventilation systems for safety equipments - service systems for ventilation systems. Embedded Systems. Embedded system , micro-con- troller Embedded systems differ from general purpose computers in many Low cost: As embedded systems are extensively used in con Thermal systems ; Systemes thermiques. Lalot, S. Greth, 38 France ; Bontemps, A. Data Systems vs.
Information Systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems. In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems , and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto Multibody Systems.
Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems , why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system System dynamics. This book introduces systems thinking and conceptual tool and modeling tool of dynamics system such as tragedy of single thinking, accessible way of system dynamics, feedback structure and causal loop diagram analysis, basic of system dynamics modeling, causal loop diagram and system dynamics modeling, information delay modeling, discovery and application for policy, modeling of crisis of agricultural and stock breeding products, dynamic model and lesson in ecosystem, development and decadence of cites and innovation of education forward system thinking.
Coupling component systems towards systems of systems. International audience; Systems of systems SoS are a hot topic in our "fully connected global world". Our aim is not to provide another definition of what SoS are, but rather to focus on the adequacy of reusing standard system architecting techniques within this approach in order to improve performance, fault detection and safety issues in large-scale coupled systems that definitely qualify as SoS, whatever the definition is.
A key issue will be to secure the availability of the services pr Systems effectiveness. Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations.
Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions. Auxiliary systems. Systems included under the heading ''Reactor Auxillary Systems '' are those immediately involved with the reactor operation. These include the systems for dosing and letdown of reactor coolant, as well as for the chemical dosing, purification and treatment of the reactor coolant and the cooling system in the controlled area. The ancillary systems are mainly responsible for liquid and gaseous treatment and the waste treatment for final storage.
Bitcoin System. Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users.
Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions system components and their mutual relationships. The Operating System has been in production use since and provides data management, terminal, and job execution facilities.
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The Application System uses these facilities in solving problems in reactor physics and engineering. Features of the Application System are the two-dimensional lattice physics and three-dimensional transient reactor physics capabilities, which have been in use since and , respectively. Systems thinking. Evaluation is one of many fields where " systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking.
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Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves. Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns rules.
For an evaluator to become a " systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results. Cognitive Systems. The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments.
I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities Crystal Systems.
Discusses characteristics of crystal systems , comparing in table format crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. Filter systems. The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented.
The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. Expert systems. The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems ', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed.
Expert System. An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge b Retrofitting Systems. This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations.
All systems are described in detail in respect to use Multifunction system. The development, the characteristics and the applications of a multifunction system are presented. The system was developed in order to allow, without time loss, the modification of the circuit function by replacing only one component. The following elements form the multifunction system : a fixed base, which is part of the tube, a removable piece, which is inserted into the base, a cover plate and its locking system. The material, chosen among commercial trade marks, required small modifications in order to be used in the circuit [fr.
Operating systems. Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems , including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.
Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system , followed by a discussion on the definition and pr. Systems integration. The first section discusses some of the fundamental issues in systems integration, such as the significance of systems boundaries, systems lifecycle and systems entropy, issues arising from complexity, the implications of systems immortality, and so on.
The next section outlines various generic processes for executing systems integration, to act as guides for practitioners. These address both the design of the system to be integrated and the preparation of the wider system in which the integration will occur. Then the next section outlines some of the human-specific issues that would need to be addressed in such processes; for example, indeterminacy and incompleteness, the prediction of human reliability, workload issues, extended situation awareness, and knowledge lifecycle management.
For all of these, suggestions and further readings are proposed. Finally, the conclusions section reiterates in condensed form the major issues arising from the above. Ternary systems. The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given.
An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. Recommender systems. Acclaimed by various content platforms books, music, movies and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies.
If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems , the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing.
It deals with the understan. Material Systems. This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project Systems Engineering. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization ECSS , a component of t Energetic Systems.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support, Intelligent systems. Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities.
Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system. Systemic darwinism. Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology.
We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites.
A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems e. Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems , Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories e. Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives.
Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. World wide developments in shortwall and wide web mining techniques. The paper describes the progress to date with continuous pillar extraction, and how the typical longwall powered support has been modified to be both strong enough and stable enough to provide roof support for very wide webs.
It also describes the operating systems which have been specially designed. The next stages of development are discussed, particularly the provision of continuous conveyor haulage in place of the present-day shuttle car. The author suggests that marrying American coal-getting technology and British roof support technology might increase productivity. Caste System. In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics.
The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers.
Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article The GEOMASS system integrates a commercial geological interpretation system EarthVision , which is used for geological modelling and visualisation, with a proprietary code for groundwater flow FracAffinity.
This integrated system allows users to make rapid improvement of models as data increases. Also, it is possible to perform more realistic groundwater flow simulation due to the capability of modelling the rock mass as a continuum with discrete hydro-structural features in the rock mass. Updating of the FracAffinity has been continued as needed and FracAffinity version3.
Systems integration automation system. System integration automation system. This paper introduces business activities on an automation systems integration SI started by a company in July,, and describes the SI concepts. The business activities include, with the CIM unified production carried out on computers and AMENITY living environment as the mainstays, a single responsibility construction ranging from consultation on structuring optimal systems for processing and assembling industries and intelligent buildings to system design, installation and after-sales services.
Creative Systems. Udstillingen diskuterede ud fra deres meget forskellige arbejder, det kreative potentiale i anvendelsen af systemer Reactive Systems. A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment.
Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic.
In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues Both of them were developed several years ago as a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center GCC subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. Communication between the two subsystems is controlled through the international telephone line network. Therefore all communication data are encrypted to prevent access by an unauthorized person who may intend to make a falsification, or tapping.
The facility subsystem has an appropriate measure that ensure data security and reliable operation under unattended mode of operator. The software of this system is designed so as to be easily used in other different types of computers. Watchdog System. This deliverable is part of WP4. Overall WP4 is motivated by the need for automatic systems that can ease the task of annotating massive amounts of traffic data.
Concretely this deliverable is related to WP4. The idea with the watchdog is to develop a system that can remov Dynamical systems. Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems , created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems , symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains.
The the. Water systems. Some selected systems , i. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well.
It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. Imaging system. The invention provides a two dimensional imaging system in which a pattern of radiation falling on the system is detected to give electrical signals for each of a plurality of strips across the pattern.
The detection is repeated for different orientations of the strips and the whole processed by compensated back projection. For a shadow x-ray system a plurality of strip x-ray detectors are rotated on a turntable. For lower frequencies the pattern may be rotated with a Dove prism and the strips condensed to suit smaller detectors with a cylindrical lens.
Kaonic systems. Novel systems involving two kaons and one nucleon or three kaons are also reported and finally a short discussion is made of the analogous state DNN for which recent studies find a large binding and a small width. The systems integration modeling system.
This paper discusses the systems integration modeling system SIMS , an analysis tool for the detailed evaluation of the structure and related performance of the Federal Waste Management System FWMS and its interface with waste generators. It's use for evaluations in support of system -level decisions as to FWMS configurations, the allocation, sizing, balancing and integration of functions among elements, and the establishment of system -preferred waste selection and sequencing methods and other operating strategies is presented.
SIMS includes major analysis submodels which quantify the detailed characteristics of individual waste items, loaded casks and waste packages, simulate the detailed logistics of handling and processing discrete waste items and packages, and perform detailed cost evaluations.
Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Box , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University. Septic Systems. The web site provides guidance and technical assistance for homeowners, government officials, industry professionals, and EPA partners about how to properly develop and manage individual onsite and community cluster systems that treat domestic wastewater. Respiratory system. The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized.
Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed. Bubble systems. This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems , ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems , boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary.
Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth dynamically and thermally controlled , collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation condensation in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems.
This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil Systems Biology. At first glance, this book may appear eclectic. It contains writings from architectural practice in a language and structure based on subjective views and experiences, combined with research contributions based on systematic design investigations of discrete computational systems. Discussions range Expert Systems. Expert systems mimic the problem-solving activity of human experts in specialized domains by capturing and representing expert knowledge.
Expert systems include a knowledge base, an inference engine that derives conclusions from the knowledge, and a user interface. Knowledge may be stored as if-then rules, orusing other formalisms such as frames and predicate logic. Uncertain knowledge may be represented using certainty factors, Bayesian networks, Dempster-Shafer belief functions, or fuzzy se Nanorobotic Systems.
Full Text Available Two strategies towards the realization of nanotechnology have been presented, i. The former one is mainly based on nanofabrication and includes technologies such as nano-lithography, nano-imprint, and etching.
Presently, they are still 2D fabrication processes with low resolution. The later one is an assembly-based technique. At present, it includes such items as self-assembly, dip-pen lithography, and directed self-assembly. These techniques can generate regular nano patterns in large scales. To fabricate 3D complex nano devices there are still no effective ways by so far. Here we show our effort on the development of a nano laboratory, a prototype nanomanufacturing system , based on nanorobotic manipulations.
In which, we take a hybrid strategy as shown in Fig. In this system , nano fabrication and nano assembly can be performed in an arbitrary order to construct nano building blocks and finally nano devices. The most important feature in this system is that the products can be fed back into the system to shrink the system part by part leading to nanorobots.
Property characterization can be performed in each intermediate process. Due to the nanorobotic manipulation system , dynamic measurement can be performed rather than conventional static observations. Fiscal system analysis - contractual systems. Production sharing contracts are one of the most popular forms of contractual system used in petroleum agreements around the world, but the manner in which the fiscal terms and contract parameters impact system measures is complicated and not well understood.
The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of private and market uncertainty in contractual fiscal systems. A meta-modelling approach is employed that couples the results of a simulation model with regression analysis to construct numerical functionals that quantify the fiscal regime. Relationships are derived that specify how the present value, rate of return, and take statistics vary as a function of the system parameters. The deepwater Girassol field development in Angola is taken as a case study. Reactor system. The represent invention concerns a reactor system with improved water injection means to a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor.
A steam pump is connected to a heat removing system pipeline, a high pressure water injection system pipeline and a low pressure water injection system pipeline for injecting water into the pressure vessel. A pump actuation pipeline is disposed being branched from a main steam pump or a steam relieaf pipeline system , through which steams are supplied to actuate the steam pump and supply cooling water into the pressure vessel thereby cooling the reactor core.
The steam pump converts the heat energy into the kinetic energy and elevates the pressure of water to a level higher than the pressure of the steams supplied by way of a pressure-elevating diffuser. Cooling water can be supplied to the pressure vessel by the pressure elevation. This can surely inject cooling water into the pressure vessel upon loss of coolant accident or in a case if reactor scram is necessary, without using an additional power source.
At present, there are more than 20 energy wood harwarders in use in Finland. However, there have been no comprehensive studies carried out on the energy wood harwarders. This paper looks into the productivity results obtained with energy wood harwarders. In addition, the energy wood harvesting costs for harwarders are compared with those of the two-machine system.
The results clearly indicated what kind of machine resources can be profitably allocated to different whole-tree harvesting sites. The energy wood harwarders should be directed towards harvesting sites where the forwarding distances are small, the trees harvested are relatively small, and the total volume of energy wood removed is quite low. Respectively, when the stem size removed is relatively large in young stands, and the forest haulage distances are long, the traditional two-machine system is more competitive.
ARAC system. In spite of the remarkable safety record of the nuclear industry as a whole, recent public concern over the potential impact of the industry's accelerated growth has prompted ERDA to expand its emergency response procedures. ARAC will add at least two new functions to this capability: centralized, real-time data acquisition and storage, and simulation of the long range atmospheric transport of hazardous materials.
To perform these functions, ARAC employs four major sub- systems or facilities: the site facility, the central facility, the global weather center and the regional model. The system has been under development for the past two years at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California. Microbiology System. Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.
VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. Spin systems. This book is about spin systems as models for magnetic materials, especially antiferromagnetic lattices. Spin- systems are well-defined models, for which, in special cases, exact properties may be derived.
These special cases are for the greater part, one- dimensional and restricted in their applicability, but they may give insight into general properties that also exist in higher dimension.
This work pays special attention to qualitative differences between spin lattices of different dimensions. It also replaces the traditional picture of an ordered antiferromagnetic state of a Heisenberg sy. Distributed systems. For this third edition of "Distributed Systems ," the material has been thoroughly revised and extended, integrating principles and paradigms into nine chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Architectures 3. Processes 4. Communication 5. Naming 6. Coordination 7. Replication 8.
Fault tolerance 9. Security A separation has been made between basic material and more specific subjects. The latter have been organized into boxed sections, which may be skipped on first reading. To assist in understanding the more algorithmic parts, example programs in Python have been included. The examples in the book leave out many details for readability, but the complete code is available through the book's Website, hosted at www.
Immune System. Operating Systems. Because of the expanded uses for soft real-time functionality, it is finding its way into most current operating systems , including major versions of Unix and Windows NT OS. Whitfield is a climate change denier, I see no reason to take anything he says seriously.
People who deny the reality of climate change disagreement over impacts, adaptation, and mitigation policies is reasonable, denying the reality of climate change is similar to supporting creationism simply remove themselves from the possibility of intelligent dialogue. The real issue that should be addressed is how to phase out coal while providing economic assistance to the Appalachian regions that are relatively impoverished not worried about large coal companies in the PRB. Given the gradual decline in coal employment over the last few decades, coal is more important to politicians than people in those regions still a large source of campaign contributions.
But in areas where there are limited alternative employers, shutting down coal mines can have serious local impacts, and it behooves well heeled liberals to address these concern as both good politics and good social policy. As Colorado has shown, as you increase wealth in a region formerly dependent on extractive industries, citizens will shift toward a pro-environment stance as quality of life becomes more important than preserving a few local jobs. The analysis for the U. Chamber of Commerce was conducted by IHS, which is a well-respected energy economics company that has performed analysis for both industry and government agencies.
I would suggest that because the analysis was conducted by IHS it is balanced and credible. During the Bush Administration, EPA took the position that it had no authority to regulate greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act and that, even if it did, there were good policy reasons not to do so.
I led the team that defended that position in court. Though EPA prevailed at the D. Circuit, the Supreme Court eventually went the other way in Massachusetts v. EPA found such endangerment in late , as the foundation for its suite of greenhouse gas regulations. I led the defense of these regulations too, despite my previous defense of the opposite position. Such is the life of a Department of Justice attorney! Critically, though some aspects of those regulations are currently under Supreme Court review in Utility Air Regulatory Group v.
In American Electric Power v. So, what are the big legal issues likely to be? First, has EPA issued the necessary predecessor rule? Under the statute, before EPA can regulate existing power plants, it must issue a regulation governing new power plants. If that new source standard fails, then arguably EPA has no authority to issue an existing source standard. EPA apparently has anticipated this possibility. And EPA cleverly argues that either of these can provide the sufficient legal basis for issuance of an existing source standard.
There is your first legal issue. Is the modified-and-reconstructed-source standard enough? For existing power plants, that likely means heat rate i. Finally, there will be significant argument over whether EPA can as it has proposed set emission reduction targets, or whether instead that is the job of the individual States. But a contrary argument is also available — that EPA only has the authority to establish the ground rules the broad outlines of what the States may consider in developing their plans and that it is up to the States to determine what emission reductions they will seek to achieve.
How EPA addresses these questions in its final rule one year from now, and how the courts thereafter interpret these critical statutory terms, will have a profound effect on whether and to what extent these standards will be implemented.
I found your contribution very interesting. The utility can make electricity using a variety of resources. Regulations that are not reasonable are subject to being set aside by the courts. Less than 13 percent was from renewable sources. The electricity we require would suddenly become a scarce commodity, with profound consequences for the economy and for the health and safety of the citizenry.
Oh dear … First, I am talking about air pollution … not specifically CO2 which is just one pollutant, and I am not saying banning coal tomorrow. The rules never do that anyway…there is always a phase in time and for energy replacements that will take quite awhile. This is a technology shift like ones we have been through before and will again. I would disagree that renewables cannot eventually do the job but that is another discussion. The coal plants with little or no pollution controls represent a large portion of the fleet. In the Clean Water Act it seemed that the emphasis was on clean water not the how of getting there … just fishable and swimable water.
This carbon rule will apply to coal units that have already reduced air pollutants to meet mercury and air toxics standards MATS. That being said their efficiency cannot compare to combined cycle gas turbine efficiency. In some states, this rule would affect how much those baseload coal plants operate. They will likely be displaced in the short-term with more natural gas generation. For this rule, coal is definitely the loser and natural gas is the winner. Yes, you read that right that almost half is for fossil fuels.
Thus, the IEA concludes that in the next two decades, renewables are unlikely to displace fossil fuels for primary energy needs. Sorry, Jane! But, as you suggest, many sections of the Clean Air Act are designed to be technology-forcing, so that eventually emissions of pollutants will be minimized or eliminated. Sources of these pollutants then have to take steps to reduce their emissions so that the States can attain the levels that EPA sets.
Are we shooting for an end to climate change? To simply lessen its severity? To reverse it? Coal-fired power emits more CO2 than natural gas, but natural gas-fired power emits CO2 too. What is the acceptable level of CO2 emissions, then? Is it zero? If so, should natural gas also be banned until its emissions can be reduced to zero? Is the acceptable level the amount emitted by natural gas-fired power? Is it somewhere in between? Which is one reason that this proposal is pages long and looks so endlessly complicated!
But, if finalized and upheld by the courts, as you say, this rule is likely to require the high-GHG sources of electricity to reduce those emissions, lest they be phased out either as a result of economics, societal pressures, or laws or regulations in favor of other technologies. There is a whole raft of existing and pending EPA regulations that depend upon carbon being a pollutant and therefore subject to regulation under section d of the Clean Air Act of The CO2-as-pollutant policy can change with a new administration or it can be outlawed by a new Congress that updates the Act to specifically define pollutants.
In it fought for it. This is a political fight and I believe the tide is turning once again. Those were the protests of auto industry executives, arguing against catalytic converters, seatbelts and fuel efficiency standards. We will see shutdowns. Adverse effects on the national economy.
The science is uncertain. This is how industry representatives argued against phasing out ozone-killing CFCs, taking poisonous lead out of gasoline and scrubbing acid-rain-causing pollutants out of power plant smokestacks. Polluters have been using the same disinformation tactics for 40 years to fight life-saving standards, which end up being some of the most cost-effective and powerfully protective measures on the books.
Take acid rain, for example. Utility customers have benefited not just from cleaner air but also from lower electric bills in most states. Getting toxic lead out of gasoline, the oil industry claimed, would cost a dollar a gallon. It turned out to cost just a penny a gallon to protect hundreds of thousands of kids from lead-induced brain damage. Today, thanks to a partnership spearheaded by NRDC, leaded gasoline has been virtually eliminated from the planet. This global threat to the health of millions of children is gone. Our ozone layer is healing, preventing nearly million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer in America alone.
History shows us that standards spark innovation, new and better ways of doing things, better products, and more choices for consumers. Our air is cleaner, our cars go farther on a gallon of gas, our refrigerators cool more stuff using less energy than ever before—without any of the disastrous consequences predicted by industry hold-outs. This American Electric Power ad from claims that electricity would have to be rationed because of Clean Air Act safeguards.
Carbon pollution standards for power plants are simply the latest in a series of successful measures that have leveraged the power of innovation to cut harmful pollution and protect our health. Industry groups will fight tooth and nail to protect their interests, armed with egregiously misleading ads and dubious analysis. But the American public has a different agenda—an urgent desire to curb the harmful impacts of climate change. The EPA, in issuing its first-ever standards for carbon pollution from power plants, has the facts, history and public opinion on its side.
You reference critiques by ACEEE, an organization that does generate useful data but is also highly biased in favor of energy efficiency, so one should be suspicious of their analyses, and UTC, which have subsidiaries involved in ESCO businesses. Claims of net savings and net green job creation should be treated with care, while it is possible, this requires some assumptions that require close examination whether carbon restrictions will be implemented in a fashion that will limit dead weight losses, technology advances that will reduce the cost of meeting carbon targets, and the tradeoff between more but lower paying green jobs v fossil industry jobs as well as the net reduction in energy related jobs due to lower energy consumption.
Unfortunately, in this highly politicized environment, there are few studies done by relatively disinterested parties who make their models and assumptions transparent and available. Claims and counter claims, presented as aggregated numbers that make great sound bites but obscure the underlying analysis, hide the serious tradeoffs that need to be made, and the costs to society as a whole and how those costs will be distributed, both geographically and with respect to equity considerations.
Ironically, one of the more strident opponents of cost-benefit analysis have been some environmental groups and a faction within the EPA that sees C-B as a tool of conservatives, not as a mechanism to force rigor on the discussion by presenting the tradeoffs involved. The problem was never C-B, but educating people how a C-B should be done, with transparency as to assumptions discount rates, valuation of health, life, and other costs and benefits that do not have market prices , acknowledgement of its limitations, and the level of uncertainty.
I laud Cass Sunstein for his efforts in this direction during his tenure with the Obama Administration. GHG limits that encourage energy efficiency, and support similar steps by other OECD nations, also provide some national security benefits by reducing the vulnerability of industrial economies to energy curtailments, whether by rogue actors like Putin, or nations like Iran. These benefits are indirect and hard to quantify, but should still be part of the C-B equation. Some basic facts. The coal plants that are subject to this rule are almost all very old and quite outmoded — leaving carbon pollution aside.
And almost all of them are plants that candidate George W. Bush promised to clean up when he ran for election in The bulk of the plant closures that the new rule will require have already been announced by their owners, because it is not economic to clean up the mercury, the sulfur and the particulates that uncontrolled coal plants emit. Many others simply no longer compete with renewables or natural gas, depending on the state. So even gas is losing out to renewables in many situations — on a price basis, not because of mandates.
As most of the participants in this dialogue are aware, the cost of power purchase agreements for electricity from wind and solar has been plummetting, while the average cost of power from existing coal plants is going to rise steadily as coal plants must modernize and clean up their health related emissions and stop making their neighbors sick. New coal? Thank you all for your input. Congressman Whitfield, Thank you for taking the time to host the conversation. Would be most interested to get your response to this article.
And again, thanks for hosting the discussion. Climate change is a critical problem to solve and the damages in the future are not uncertain. However t he new EPA rules are unlikely to have a dramatic impact on global emissions on their own, given that almost all future growth in carbon emissions will come from developing and underdeveloped countries — most notably China, which became the largest carbon emitter in Hence, much of the debate about the rules has centered on how likely they are to help induce China and other nations to agree to binding targets of their own.
The political discussion about climate change misses a critical point; whatever their role in climate negotiations, these new rules will accelerate technology development and deployment, making it more practical and affordable for nations everywhere to reduce emissions. Their influence on innovation is where they will need to have the biggest impact for the world to achieve its CO2 reduction goals. Most states will first target improvements to fossil fuel power plants.
CCGTs, which use energy from burning natural gas, as well as steam generated from hot exhaust gas, will be in demand, given their higher efficiency, benefitting CCGT giants such as General Electric. The new carbon emissions rules will likely open up hitherto unattractive markets such as Georgia and South Carolina; expect a greater flow of debt capital and competing business models such as leasing from SolarCity and solar loans from Sungage to make their presence felt. Expect the utilities in coal-dominant regions, like American Electric Power AEP , to expand their residential energy efficiency programs, leading the adoption of air barrier materials, LED lights, and double pane low-e coated windows.
Department of Energy, making the approach impractical.
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In short, the impact of the new EPA rules will neither come via a global binding climate deal nor from an absolute reduction in U. Innovative companies developing CCGT, CCS, solar, wind, and building energy efficiency solutions will be in position to deploy their technologies aggressively, helping the world reduce emission targets while growing their businesses. The solution to the energy problem must involve cost effective technology. Unfortunately, most of the renewable energy technology being talk about is not cost effective now and has no real promise to ever be cost effective in the future.
I am talking about solar cell solar thermal and wind as prime examples. The low duty cycle less than hour of time have the right condition for electricity generation at rate power in a year of hours and the inability to match time of electricity demand need additional technology for support make me think it is possible to reject these approaches as the primary development choice.
The original proposal was made in I think the subsequent development stuck with the cold water pipe design and so other less than cost effective choices. I hope some of you will try to contact me at jamselaus gmail. I hope to have some of you going to the Hawaii conference. The ocean already store as much thermal energy as one whole year of solar radiation energy, which is about times global human demand.
Ocean temperature is much more stable than wind or sunlight so that OTEC power plant can operate all the time. A bit late. That ship just sailed. EPA just took A long time to do what it intended to do several years ago. Wholesale energy prices tell the story — not opinions, rhetoric or political tendencies. In doing a quick review of comments above, it appears most of you are not or have not been actively employed in the wholesale utility energy industry.
Bottom line: coal and nuclear, even with their billions of dollars of federal subsidies, cannot compete with UN-subsidized wind and solar energy. This includes ALL forms of generation such as cheap hydro-electric which is now becoming an intermittent resource due to more common droughts thanks to climate change and really old but inefficient coal plants.
In Texas, the largest energy consuming state in the USA with some of the cheapest fossil fuel energy resources, solar beat — on price alone — coal, wind, natural gas and nuclear for the municipal utility for the city of Austin , and has done so for CPS San Antonio and others. Unsubsidized solar today is about 7 cents per kWh, which is still on par with fossil fuel prices. With respect to intermittency, that is a MYTH. The utility industry has more than a century of practice managing wild swings in intermittent demand on the load side and has gotten quite proficient at it.
If solar and wind were not subsidized or mandated, and had to bid for blocks on the day-ahead market like everyone else, then their wholesale prices would be meaningful. However, comparing wholesale prices for yr PPAs while ignoring all the subsidies from federal grants and loan guarantees and PTC or ITC, and state grants and loans and RECs and must-take mandates, and the grid-offloaded costs of backup and buffering requiring new power plant construction and inefficient plant operation as spinning and standby reserve and thousands of miles of new transmission lines, is hopelessly misleading.
Sources: 1. Energy Information Agency, July Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. LCOE is the only metric that captures full lifecycle costs, and even it ignores the back-up and buffering costs of making arbitrarily intermittent power into dispatchable power that plays equitably on the grid. Electric Power Research Institute, February To this LCOE must be added the cost of new transmission lines and ancillary grid services necessary to integrate the intermittent, geographically dispersed, and remote wind and solar farms to the grid and pass their power to the load centers.
No significant new capacity is needed and all this money is building wastefully duplicative capacity that reduces the capacity factor and ROI of the entire grid. Five of the top six states in renewable penetration percentage are in the top 11 of electricity rate increases since South Dakota, Kansas, Idaho, Minnesota, North Dakota with rate increases ranging from States with the highest renewable power generation are suffering the predictable consequences of reduced grid stability.
California dominates in Energy Insecurity Top Ten far in disproportion to its population with reported outages in compared to for Texas, for Michigan, for Pennsylvania, for Ohio, for New York, for Virginia, for New Jersey, for Washington, and 98 for Massachusetts. Notice a pattern here?
This refreshing breath of reason is blowing across the Atlantic and will arrive here shortly. The public trough for solar and wind is going to dry up and they are ultimately going to have to compete on their own on the dispatchable energy market instead of socializing their costs to ratepayers and taxpayers. You tell me how much a MW of arbitrarily intermittent wind that may or may not appear as promised bid for noon tomorrow is worth on the market today compared to a MW of rapidly dispatchable and high-ramp rate NG or a MW of reliable baseload coal or nuclear or hydro.
This is the true value, but we are a long way from letting the market work at this point, and it is certain that looking at only the wholesale market through a soda straw tells us nothing about the whole reality. Germany takes 8. Judging by the wholesale market alone, RE is cheaper than free in Germany. We need to reject the fantasy and embrace reality.
That is the essence of the scientific empiricism that elevated the western world. Doing what sounds good and feels good without checking the data and doing the math is the path to ruin. I am reluctant to enter this discussion simply because the opening proposition from Congressman Whitfield is an ideological diatribe and not a statement of fact. Nonetheless, this American welcomes the modest proposed rule by EPA to limit greenhouse gases from electric power generation on a flexible, state-by-state basis. The proposed rule is modest because so much progress has already been made in the electric generating mix since the baseline used by the rule.
We are almost halfway to the goal today. Very, very doable, especially since the proposed rule provides flexibility with credit given for increased efficiency and renewables. The costs of implementing and meeting the proposed rule depends in large part on whether American businesses and states invest in innovation and technology, or put their money into lawyers to get delays. If the latter, too many more Americans will die from air pollution and in coal mines, and we lose more precious time to compete in the world markets for advanced clean energy.
The winners will be those who go with market-based innovations — flexible state programs that find the least cost methods of increasing energy efficiency, increasing solar deployment, and a trading system to reallocate GHG emissions from fossil plants. He said that in January , before he was first elected president, and uttered about a completely different approach to carbon. The current proposed rule is much more modest and provides multiple flexible options for compliance.
Increases in the price of fossil-based electricity can be mitigated and offset by decreases in consumption through efficiency and use of renewable power. That is the market at work. Last, the notion that what the U. The world has been looking to the U. This measure is a strong first step in that leadership. Japan is applauding the U.
Energy and climate are global issues with enormous strategic implications. The proposed rule is a powerful exercise of American soft power that will boost the U. How is taking an action to improve the environment, create jobs, and eventually bring down electric rates so horrible? As an Independent, I am tired of politicians attacking each other whenever definitive actions are taken. Are you an American, who cares about your fellow Americans, or are you just a Republican or Democrat who just does things that are supposedly good for your party. Jesus taught compassion and if you have none for your fellow citizens, then you must follow the teachings of the Anti Christ.
Centrifugal separation of fly ash, mercury, CO2, NOx, and SOx in the open von Karman geometry counter-rotating coaxial impellers with axial extraction would avoid the water waste of amine scrubbing. But once CO2 is captured, what is the custodian supposed to do with it? The only other potentially available pore space, once we set aside the tiny capacity of depleted reservoirs, coal beds, and dry formations, is in deep saline formations. Although deep saline formations have lots of pore space, i. Deep saline formations are not empty tanks, but full tanks. Moving the brine out and the CO2 in may well be impossible at the scale of billions of tons each year.
We hear a lot about the 25 years of successful experience with EOR, but it is the extrapolation of this EOR experience to permanent CO2 storage in deep saline formations that is at issue because there are not enough depleted reservoirs to accommodate the tremendous volumes of CO2 going to permanent storage. So EOR in depleted reservoirs empty tanks is immaterial. Once injected into the formation, the CO2 would have to be securely contained there. This fundamental point seems to have been overlooked.
In , a sobering article appeared in the refereed Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering , authored by two distinguished full professors, Christine Ehlig-Economides and Michael J. This will require from 5 to 20 times more underground reservoir volume than has been envisioned by many, and it renders geologic sequestration of CO2 a profoundly non-feasible option for the management of CO2 emissions. Curiously, the Ehlig-Economides paper, a peer-reviewed article authored by two prominent experts in petroleum engineering, was not among the references cited in the recent interagency report on CCS.
So its optimism about sequestration may be based on ignorance. Cramming 2 billion tons a year into deep saline formations is a vain hope, with no test data. One known problem is pore space near the well clogging with the hoped-for mineralization and thus shutting off flow of CO2 into the formation. The danger of saline intrusion into the groundwater and CO2 plumes erupting and killing people must be weighed against the trivial benefit to global warming, which is the ostensible motivation for FutureGen. In EOR the flow is steady state and not intermittent because there is a production well that provides a path out of the formation and the flow is at constant pressure.
The CO2 dissolves in the oil and is recycled back into the reservoir after it is extracted. The depleted reservoir is like an empty tank, with flow in and out, i. Ehlig-Economides et al. Pumps to hammer in the supercritical CO2 and displace the brine would produce pulsed, not steady, flow. As the more CO2 goes in, the pumps will have to work even harder against higher pressure. Lateral leakage of buoyant supercritical CO2 out of the sealing formation would also be a disaster because this high pressure bubble could find its way around the caprock and erupt at the surface, or into groundwater supplies.
The CO2 cannot dissolve in the brine or become carbonate quicky enough to mitigate the danger from leakage. When sequestration proponents expect the storage formations to leak enough to be classified as open systems, then there seems to be no point other than EOR for the oil companies of injecting CO2 underground and it probably is safer to dump it in the atmosphere. The lifetime emissions from just one large coal-fired power plant would displace water equal to the size of a giant oil field 4.
Work would be required to lift all of that brine to the surface to make way for the tremendous volume of CO2. That work would presumably come from combustion of fossil fuels, adding to the CO2 emissions. What will be done with all of that brine once it is extracted? Disposal of reverse osmosis reject brine is already a limiting factor in desalination deployment, and this will be a much bigger and saltier waste stream.
If the plan is to hammer the supercritical, buoyant CO2 into the saline formation in order to force the water to flow elsewhere underground, will that even be possible against the tremendous pressure at the depth required to maintain supercriticality? Will the displaced brine flow up to pollute fresh water supplies or increase soil salinity, leading to famine? Will the hydraulic hammering of pumping CO2 fracture the sealing formation, leading eventually to a disaster like Lake Nyos in , where 1, people died from asphyxiation when CO2 erupted from underground?
If a CO2 plume does escape from the sealing formation, what can be done about it? All of the unit operations in this plant are proven at large scale. Chemical plants and refineries operate at similar or larger scales with higher degrees of complexity. If the PUC in the State of Mississippi disallows the overruns from being folded into the rate base, Southern Company directors may have some uncomfortable decisions to make. I noted that when the hydrogen is burned, it forms gaseous water and the heat of vaporization of all that water is permanently lost to the process. I also showed him an alternate approach based on pressurized oxy-fuel that has a higher overall efficiency and a quarter of the unit operations of IGCC with CC.
Simpler, non catalytic unit operations. It seems that the pressurized oxy-fuel approach I invented is being taken up by others now. Clearly, they were technically knowledgeable enough to understand the challenges and the costs of what they were advocating. Perhaps they were more on the side of their pet technology rather than on the side of coal and affordable, low-carbon electricity. Want to grow coal use in America? Go to zero emission and then compel natural gas to do the same. Coal will always have a costly conversion device — even without CCS. If natural gas combined cycle CO2 emissions set the standard rather than zero, the deck is very well stacked for natural gas.
However, if natural gas has to go to zero, they will also need CCS and that will raise capital cost for gas and make the financial trade-off between coal and natural gas more balanced. Everybody knew the US was running out of natural gas. I fully agree with folks who dismiss the dire warnings about freezing in the dark with a broken economy as a result of this rule.
That is simply noise and nonsense by people who are either being paid to spew it or people who refuse to consider market forces. It is instructive to look back at the introduction of the catalytic converter for automobiles in response to CAA regulations. The public and congressional records are full of dire warnings about how the regulations were going to destroy the auto industry and crater the economy.
Now at the exact same time the auto industry was warning of impending doom from CAA regulating auto emissions, it was changing the entire fleet and production lines from rear wheel drive to front wheel drive because that was where the market was going. This rear to front wheel drive change is a much more profound change to a vehicle than better engine controls and a catalytic converter.
I have been on the National Coal Council for about 7 years now and have watched and listened and spoken occasionally. So why waste the time of a senior DOE executive who is devoting his career in an effort to help develop better, faster and cheaper technology for coal conversion? Prior to these regulations being real, there is no real market. It will astound you how fast it will happen. So, lets get er done and move on and use our vast coal resource in a way that sets the standard for the world and that we can all be proud of. Nevertheless, I do not think Southern Co.
Whatever technology of carbon capture is implemented pre-combustion, post-combustion, oxy-combustion , they all serve to reduce the energy efficiency increase the heat rate of the power plant. If CO2 is pollution, then should it not still be pollution in the ground? At high concentration, it is actually a deadly, heavier-than-air gas that displaces oxygen.
Any leak from underground storage forms a surface-hugging bubble with a wake that migrates downhill to fill valleys and suffocate all living animals. There are already confirmed cases of deer kills in Mississippi from such EOR leaks. CO2 is another case where EPA is fatally inconsistent with policy and forgets its responsibility to protect all three domains of the environment: air, land, and water. The application to power plants will be to abandon carbon capture and instead maximize efficiency, which reduces both heat rate and CO2 emissions.
This approach also improves energy security and the economy — a win-win-win-win. Getting CO2 down within the fenceline could involve increasing plant fuel efficiency by waste heat power harvesting from turbine exhaust steam , which would also mitigate the enormous water waste of coal plants 1. Non-chemical means for post-combustion CO2 centrifugal capture have been designed, which are scalable to retrofit old coal plants. Not only the CO2 capture problem, but the mercury and ash capture problem could be solved by very simple dynamic scrubbers using high g centrifugal separation in a radial recirculation reactor.
CO2 utilization could be by radial counterflow shear electrolysis cracking of CO2 and water, powered by renewables whenever they are available. Products of shear electrolysis would be syngas for transportation fuel and elemental carbon fibers. The counter-rotating coaxial oppositely-charged flywheels would serve as means for energy storage of intermittent wind, in a hybrid power system. In December , the U. No Californian Congressperson was invited to speak or attended. Sadly, Hastings obtained neither for California. That transmission can be beefed up.
Further, Californians can also get double water storage for droughts, when a future Columbia water connector is built. Ditto, both R and D Californian politicians I faxed since. Please quickly get independent Californian engineers and experts to check additional Treaty changes to get more Water Storage, and clean power. Other utilities can surely do the same by TVA is a federally owned corporation and the largest public power provider in the U. Created in , it serves 9 million customers across Tennessee, portions of Alabama, Mississippi, and Kentucky, as well as smaller parts of Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia.
TVA has a mandate to provide reliable and affordable electricity while contributing to economic development, environmental stewardship, and technological innovation. As a result, in , the TVA Board voted to approve the retirement of 18 coal units, and more recent decisions commit TVA to more coal retirements in the future.
TVA has also ramped up its renewable procurements and its energy efficiency programs over the past decade.
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- The Authenticity of the Book of Genesis!
- Synchronization and Triggering: from Fracture to Earthquake Processes: Laboratory, Field Analysis and Theories (GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences)!
TVA is in the process of transforming the Tennessee Valley into a low-carbon electric system while at the same time maintaining competitive rates and promoting economic development. If TVA can do it, so can others.
Professor Brown, TVA has reduced carbon emissions primarily by producing less power due to reduced demand following the economic crash and the loss of its biggest customer, the huge federal government uranium enrichment operation USEC. These trumpeted reductions, like those of utilities across the nation, largely evaporate if demand climbs back to pre-crash levels. The path that you quote is where we are currently headed. They say that is not good enough. He also had consistently embraced the pseudo-science of many researchers who are neither climate scientists nor have published ANY peer-reviewed studies in the field.
Additionally, Representative Whitfield was a fervent critic of U. How can we expect major developing country emitters to join in this effort when the largest developed country emitter, despite its obligations under the common but differentiated responsibilities provision of the UNFCCC, which a Republican administration helped draft refuses to take on substantive obligations itself? The report dramatically dialed back the alarmism and opened the aperture on uncertainty.
For example the new report found that, contrary to claims in the report, there has been no increase in hurricanes or major storms, no increase in droughts, that the weather in the 20th century was milder than the five preceding centuries, that there has been a year hiatus in global warming, that there is little evidence and no consensus for any catastrophic climate event in the 21st century, that there is no evidence for irreversible climate tipping points, that all the warming models have badly failed in their predictions, that factors other than CO2 must have more effect on the climate than previously estimated, and more.
The principal mechanism of damage that remained seemed to be rising sea levels, but the report indicated that there was no reason to expect any great change in rates or sudden innundations, and that complete loss of the Greenland ice cap, should it happen, would take more than a millennium. Of course this moderation is a completely different read than the page Summary Report that was crafted by non-scientist political representatives for media consumption and contains statements that do not appear in the full report and are completely unsupported and even contradicted by it e.
You would also be astute enough to have recognized that the recent White House-published National Climate Assessment inexplicably relied on the report for its claims of already-occurring damage and virtually ignored the report even though it was released 8 months following. As an expert, you also must know the little-publicized fact that global warming of 0.
In light of all this, I am curious why you so strongly advocate for government energy and emissions policies that have demonstrable harmful consequences today energy poverty, land-grabbing, deforestation, food insecurity, nitrate runoff and eutrophication, increased consumption of fossil water and finite agricultural minerals, reduced energy independence, economic stagnation in order to mitigate future harmful consequences that are not developing as forecast.
But what if this was turned around? What if we put the health benefits first, since they affect Americans locally and the impact is more immediate? Could the rule be justified solely on this basis? If the health numbers work, this would seem to justify the rule notwithstanding the estimated US climate benefits, which are longer term and heavily influenced by the energy decisions of developing countries. In my view, anchoring on health benefits would also be the more persuasive analysis for developing countries as they plot their own energy strategies. As this proposed rule proceeds through the public comment period and beyond, we need to have transparent disclosure and informed debate about the estimated health benefits from soot and smog reduction, and the estimated implementation costs.
If the rule survives legal challenge, it will also be important to track the actual implementation costs and health benefits over time, to assess the real-world merits of this rule. Somehow we need to get past this. This is the same EPA that has been forced to admit by the National Academy of Sciences that their RFS2 program has increased both GHG emissions and polluting ozone and particulates emissions over the straight consumption of conventional petroleum fuels and is thereby killing additional Americans per year.
This is the same EPA that has mis-calculated the amount of produced cellulosic ethanol by up to six orders of magnitude for 8 years in a row. This is the same EPA that has set up a RIN system that is riven with fraud and which it has proven it cannot administer. The is the same EPA which has granted E10 ethanol a standing waiver from its own pollution standards for exceeding Reid Vapor Pressure. The list goes on. The US EPA does its politicized bistro-math behind closed doors, much like the White House in their calculation of the social cost of carbon, because their methods do not stand up to the light of day.
I would not cite them as an authoritative source on anything at this time. David — regarding benefit-cost analysis BCA of EPA rules: as the proposed rule is on carbon emissions not HAPs or criteria pollutants , when quantifying benefits EPA should be including only reduced climate impact benefits. However, they also include human health benefits for reduction in PM 2. EPA has been criticized by many economists not working for one side or the other for counting co-benefits in each of their rules essentially double counting benefits arising from other rules.
So regardless of whether the social cost of carbon is appropriately quantified, EPA is purposely inflating benefits while downplaying costs. Regarding costs, although EPA does quantify an increase in average retail electricity prices of 5. You should be pleased that they are turning to a cap and trade program as a policy solution. After all, the Republicans invented it under the Nixon Administration. The same fear tactics were used by opponents prior to enactment of the Acid Rain Program U.
In both cases, the dire warnings of catastrophic economic impact proved to be completely false and totally misleading. I invite you to study it. You can also look at RGGI — that works pretty well, too. As I tell my students I teach Environmental Finance at the graduate level at New York University , I have absolutely no idea if global warming is caused by humans or not. I do know that the potential economic impact of global warming could be catastrophic. For proof, talk to any global re-insurance company. Simple financial calculus says if the expected cost of an unlikely event is horrendous, and the expected cost of the alternative such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions is manageable, choose the manageable alternative.
It just makes business sense. Kyoto signatories and there are of them will have little choice but to sign up. The U. Muller rightly stressed China is the key to reducing global air pollution and stresses coal has times more unhealthy particulates than gas. I agree with former Sierra Club Executive Director Pope, it would be nice if politicians kept old promises affecting the health of Americans. Sadly, REALITY shows coal, shipped to Asian power plants without scrubbers, can cause even more unhealthy particulates air pollution globally, and saves absolutely no carbon emissions or controversial climate change.
Recorded measurements from the nuclear accident in Japan prove the unhealthy polluted air will blow to America in a week or so. As before, it can be financed by private utility and Municipal bonds and is inflation proof unlike power from fuel fired plants. The severe California drought is in the News.
Sadly, Californian politicians are overlooking they can double water storage for droughts, when a future Columbia River water connector with the State Water System SWS is built. If nothing is done in , Californians, and US consumers eating California food products are getting short-changed. The robust debate on the consequences of EPA regulations under the Clean Air Act indicates that most commentators agree that the electric utility industry will accelerate the replacement of coal-fired electric generation with natural gas-fired electric generation.
The Foundation for Resilient Societies, a non-profit research organization seeking greater resilience of critical infrastructures, has today June 16 distributed a Press Release with research findings that consider reliability risks to the U. The Foundation for Resilient Societies does not oppose increased utilization of natural gas as a fuel for electric generation. This shift is likely to reduce net production of greenhouse gases at least in the U.
Nonetheless, without the development and implementation of reliability standards for natural gas pipelines, the acceleration of conversions from coal-fired electric generation to natural gas-fired electric generation will increase the risks of regional electric blackouts. Historically, natural gas pipelines used natural gas as fuel for pressurization of interstate gas pipelines.
Inadvertently, interstate gas pipelines have become a source of gas-electric interdependence. In recent years, electric blackouts, and near-blackout conditions e,. ISO-New England in , California in have resulted from winter cold weather, and dependence upon electric drives for gas pipeline pressurization. Department of Transportation regulates the safety of interstate gas pipelines. Since electricity is essential to virtually all other critical infrastructures, it is important to develop reliability standards that include physical security, cybersecurity, and failover electric-gas pump pipeline pressurization.